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Sweden

Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige
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Flag - Coat of arms
Motto: (Royal) " För Sverige i tiden "a
"For Sweden – With the Times"
Anthem: Du gamla, Du friab
Thou ancient, thou free
Royal anthem: Kungssången
The Song of the King
Location of Sweden (dark green)– on the European continent (light green & dark grey)– in the European Union (light green) — [Legend]
Location of Sweden ( dark green )

– on the European continent ( light green & dark grey )
– in the European Union ( light green ) — Legend ]

Capital
(and largest city) - Stockholm
59°21′N 18°4′E  /  59.35°N 18.067°E  / 59.35; 18.067
Official language(s) : Swedishc
Ethnic groups - d 81.9% Swedes 1
5.1% Finns 2 13.0% other (2009) 3 4
Demonym : Swedish or Swedes
Government : Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy
Monarch - King Carl XVI Gustaf
Prime Minister - Fredrik Reinfeldt (M
Speaker of
the Riksdag
- Per Westerberg (M
Consolidation
Personal union w. Denmark and Norway - June 17, 1397
de facto independent kingdom - June 6, 1523
end of Scandinavian union ratified - 1524
Swedish-Norwegian Union begins - November 4, 1814
Swedish-Norwegian Union ends - August 13, 1905
EUaccession - 1 January 1995
Area
Total - 449,964 km 2 (57th)
173,745 sq mi
Water (%) - 8.7
Population
2009 census - 9,354,462 5
Density - 20.6/km 2 (192nd)
53.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) - 2009 estimate
Total - $331.504 billion 6
Per capita - $35,965 6
GDP (nominal) - 2009 estimate
Total - $405.440 billion 6
Per capita - $43,986 6
Gini (2005) - 23 ( low
HDI (2007) - UP 0.963 7 ( very high ) (7th
Currency : Swedish krona (SEK
Time zone : CET (UTC+1
Summer (DST) - CEST (UTC+2
Date formats : yyyy-mm-dd,
d/m yyyy,
dd-mm-yyyy,
dd-mm-yy
Drives on the : righte
Internet TLD : .sef
Calling code : 46
a. För Sverige - I tiden has been adopted by Carl XVI Gustaf as his personal motto.

b. Du gamla, Du fria has never been officially adopted as national anthem, but is so by convention.
c. Since July 1, 2009. 8 9 Five other languages are officially recognized as minority languages. 10 They are: Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish. The Swedish Sign Language also has a special status.
d. As of 2008, 18% of the population had foreign origins (13% if excluding Finns and 9% if also excluding other Scandinavians), with 14% foreign-born and another 4% born in Sweden of two foreign-born parents. 11
e. Since 3 September 1967.

f. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. The .nu domain is another commonly used top-level domain ("nu" means "now" in Swedish).
Sweden (pronounced en-us-Sweden.ogg/ˈswiːdən/
Contents
1 - Etymology
2 - History
2.1 - Prehistory
2.2 - Viking and Middle Ages
2.3 - Swedish Empire
2.4 - Modern history
2.5 - World Wars
2.6 - Cold War
2.7 - Recent history
3 - Geography and climate
3.1 - Climate
4 - Government
4.1 - Counties and municipalities
4.2 - Political history
4.3 - Modern political system
4.4 - Political movements
4.5 - Law, law enforcement, and judicial system
4.6 - Foreign policy
4.7 - Military
5 - Economy
6 - Energy and transport infrastructure
7 - Public policy
8 - Education
9 - Demographics
9.1 - Largest cities
9.2 - Language
9.3 - Religion
9.4 - Health
10 - Science and technology
10.1 - Inventions
11 - Culture
11.1 - Music
11.2 - Media
11.3 - Literature
11.4 - Holidays
11.5 - Cuisine
11.6 - Film
11.7 - Fashion
11.8 - Sports
12 - International rankings
13 - See also
14 - References
14.1 - Footnotes
14.2 - Bibliography
15
Etymology
References: Etymology of Sweden
The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod , which meant "people of the Swedes" (Old Norse Svíþjóð , Latin Suetidi ). This word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas (Old Norse Sviar , Latin S uiones ). The Swedish name Sverige (a conjunction of the words Svea and Rike – the latter is still spelt with the letter g , "rige", in modern Danish) literally means "Kingdom of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland.

Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige , Icelandic Svíþjóð , and the more notable exception of some Finno-Ugric languages where Ruotsi (Finnish) and Rootsi (Estonian) are used, names commonly considered etymologically related to the English name for Russia, referring to the people, Rus' , originally from the coastal areas of Roslagen, Uppland.

The etymology of Swedes , and thus Sweden , is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", 15 referring to one's own Germanic tribe.

History
References: History of Sweden
Prehistory
References: Prehistoric Sweden
Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød warm period c. 12,000 BC with Late Palaeolithicreindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province. This period was characterized by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology.

Farming and animal husbandry, along with monumental burial, polished flint axes and decorated pottery, arrived from the Continent with the Funnelbeaker culture in c. 4,000 BC. Sweden's southern third was part of the stock-keeping and agricultural Nordic Bronze Age Culture's area, most of it being peripheral to the culture's Danish centre. The period began in c. 1,700 BC with the start of bronze imports from Europe. Copper mining was never tried locally during this period, and Scandinavia has no tin deposits, so all metal had to be imported.

The Nordic Bronze Age was entirely pre-urban, with people living in hamlets and on farmsteads with single-story wooden long houses.

In the absence of any Roman occupation, Sweden's Iron Age is reckoned up to the introduction of stone architecture and monastic orders around the 12th century. Much of the period is proto-historical, that is, there are written sources, but most are of low credibility. The scraps of written matter are either much later than the period in question, written in distant areas, or, while local and coeval, extremely brief.

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Ale's Stones in Scania, southern Sweden. This ship setting is a Germanic Iron Age burial monument, most likely from the 7th century, raised for the Danish prince Ale the Strong.
The climate took a turn for the worse, forcing farmers to keep cattle indoors over the winters, leading to an annual build-up of manure that could for the first time be used systematically for soil improvement.

A Roman attempt to move the Imperial border forward from the Rhine to the Elbe was aborted in AD 9 when Germans under Roman-trained leadership defeated the legions of Varus by ambush in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. About this time, there was a major shift in the material culture of Scandinavia, reflecting increased contact with the Romans.

Starting in the 2nd century, much of southern Sweden's agricultural land was parcelled out with low stone walls. They divided the land into permanent infields and meadows for winter fodder on one side of the wall, and wooded outland where the cattle grazed on the other side. This principle of landscape organization survived into the 19th century. The Roman Period also saw the first large-scale expansion of agricultural settlement up the Baltic coast of the country's northern two thirds.

Sweden enters proto-history with the Germania of Tacitus in AD 98. In Germania 44, 45 he mentions the Swedes ( Suiones ) as a powerful tribe ( distinguished not merely for their arms and men, but for their powerful fleets ) with ships that had a prow in both ends (longships). Which kings ( kuningaz ) ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC. As for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was invented among the south Scandinavian elite in the 2nd century, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts, mainly of male names, demonstrating that the people of south Scandinavia spoke Proto-Norse at the time, a language ancestral to Swedish and other North Germanic languages.

In the 6th century Jordanes named two tribes he calls the Suehans and the Suetidi who lived in Scandza. These two names are both considered to refer to the same tribe. The Suehans , he says, has very fine horses just as the "Thyringi" tribe ( alia vero gens ibi moratur Suehans, quae velud Thyringi equis utuntur eximiis ). Snorri Sturluson wrote that the contemporary Swedish king Adils (Eadgils) had the finest horses of his days. The Suehans were the suppliers of black fox skins for the Roman market. Then Jordanes names the Suetidi which is considered to be the Latin form of Svitjod . He writes that the Suetidi are the tallest of men together with the Dani who were of the same stock. Later he mentions other Scandinavian tribes for being of the same height.

Originating in semi-legendary Scandza, believed to be somewhere in modern Götaland, Sweden, a Gothic population had crossed the Baltic Sea before the 2nd century AD, reaching Scythia at the coast of the Black Sea in modern Ukraine where Goths left their archaeological traces in the Chernyakhov culture. In the 5th and 6th centuries, they became divided as the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, and established powerful successor-states of the Roman Empire in the Iberian peninsula and Italy. 16 Crimean Gothic communities appear to have survived intact in Crimea until the late 18th century. 17

Viking and Middle Ages
Early Swedish history, Foundation of Modern Sweden, and Varangians
The Swedish Viking Age lasted roughly between the eighth and eleventh centuries. During this period, it is believed that the Swedes expanded from eastern Sweden and incorporated the Geats to the south. 18 It is believed that Swedish Vikings and Gutar mainly travelled east and south, going to Finland, the Baltic countries, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine the Black Sea and further as far as Baghdad. Their routes passed through the Dnieper down south to Constantinople, on which they did numerous raids. The Byzantine EmperorTheophilos noticed their great skills in war and invited them to serve as his personal bodyguard, known as the varangian guard. The Swedish Vikings, called "Rus" are also believed to be the founding fathers of Kievan Rus. The Arabic traveller "Ibn Fadlan" described these Vikings as following:

I have seen the Rus as they came on their merchant journeys and encamped by the Itil. I have never seen more perfect physical specimens, tall as date palms, blond and ruddy; they wear neither tunics nor caftans, but the men wear a garment which covers one side of the body and leaves a hand free. Each man has an axe, a sword, and a knife, and keeps each by him at all times. The swords are broad and grooved, of Frankish sort.
19

The adventures of these Swedish Vikings are commemorated on many runestones in Sweden, such as the Greece Runestones and the Varangian Runestones. There was also considerable participation in expeditions westwards, which are commorated on stones such as the England Runestones. The last major Swedish Viking expedition appears to have been the ill-fated expedition of Ingvar the Far-Travelled to Serkland, the region south-east of the Caspian Sea. Its members are commemorated on the Ingvar Runestones, none of which mentions any survivor. What happened to the crew is unknown, but it is believed that they died of sickness.

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Gamla Uppsala, a site of religious and political importance in the early days of Sweden.
It is not known when and how the kingdom of Sweden was born, but the list of Swedish monarchs is drawn from the first kings who ruled Svealand (Sweden) and Götaland (Gothia) as one with Erik the Victorious. Sweden and Gothia were two separate nations long before that. It is not known how long they existed, Beowulf described semi-legendary Swedish-Geatish wars in the 6th century.

During the early stages of the Scandinavian Viking Age, Ystad in Scania and Paviken on Gotland, in present-day Sweden, were flourishing trade centres. Remains of what is believed to have been a large market have been found in Ystad dating from 600–700 AD. 20 In Paviken, an important centre of trade in the Baltic region during the ninth and tenth century, remains have been found of a large Viking Age harbour with shipbuilding yards and handicraft industries. Between 800 and 1000, trade brought an abundance of silver to Gotland, and according to some scholars, the Gotlanders of this era hoarded more silver than the rest of the population of Scandinavia combined. 20

St. Ansgar introduced Christianity in 829, but the new religion did not begin to fully replace paganism until the 12th century. During the 11th century, Christianity became the most prevalent religion, and from 1050 Sweden is counted as a Christian nation. The period between 1100 and 1400 was characterized by internal power struggles and competition among the Nordic kingdoms. Swedish kings also began to expand the Swedish-controlled territory in Finland, creating conflicts with the Rus who no longer had any connection with Sweden. 21

Except for the province of Skane, on the southern most tip of Sweden which was under Danish control during this time, feudalism never developed in Sweden as it did in the rest of Europe. 22 Therefore, the peasantry remained largely a class of free farmers throughout most of Swedish history. Slavery (also called thralldom) was not common in Sweden, 23 and what slavery there was tended to be driven out of existence by the spread of Christianity, the difficulty in obtaining slaves from the lands east of the Baltic Sea, and by the development of cities before the 16th century 24 Indeed, both slavery and serfdom were abolished altogether by a decree of King Magnus Erickson in 1335. Former slaves tended to be absorbed into the peasantry and some were became laborers in the towns. Still, Sweden remained a poor and economically backward country in which barter was the means of exchange. For instance, the farmers of the province of Dalsland would transport their butter to the mining districts of Sweden and exchange it there for iron, which they would then take down to the coast and trade the iron for fish they needed for food while the iron would be shipped abroad. 25

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Valdemar IV takes control over Swedish Gotland. The final fight outside the walls of Visby ended with a total massacre of 1,800 Gotlanders.
In the 14th century, Sweden was struck by the Black Death. The population of Sweden was decimated. 26 During this period the Swedish cities also began to acquire greater rights and were strongly influenced by German merchants of the Hanseatic League, active especially at Visby. In 1319, Sweden and Norway were united under King Magnus Eriksson, and in 1397 Queen Margaret I of Denmark effected the personal union of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark through the Kalmar Union. However, Margaret's successors, whose rule was also centred in Denmark, were unable to control the Swedish nobility.

Real power was held for long periods by regents (notably those of the Sture family) chosen by the Swedish parliament. King Christian II of Denmark, who asserted his claim to Sweden by force of arms, ordered a massacre in 1520 of Swedish nobles at Stockholm. This came to be known as the “Stockholm blood bath” and stirred the Swedish nobility to new resistance and, on 6 June (now Sweden's national holiday) in 1523, they made Gustav Vasa their king. 27 This is sometimes considered as the foundation of modern Sweden. Shortly afterwards he rejected Catholicism and led Sweden into the Protestant Reformation. Economically, Gustav Vasa broke the monopoly of the Hanseatic League over Swedish Baltic Sea trade. 28

The Hanseatic League had been officially formed at Lubeck on the northern coast of Germany in 1356. The League sought privileges from the princes and royalty of the countries and cities along the coasts of the Baltic Sea. 29 In exchange they offered a certain amount of protection. Having their own navy the Hansa were able to sweep the Baltic Sea free of pirates. 30 The privileges obtained by the Hansa included assurances that only Hansa citizens would be allowed to trade from the ports where they were located. They also sought agreement to be free of all customs and taxes. With these concessions, Lubeck merchants flocked to Stockholm, Sweden and soon came to dominate the economic life of that city and made the port city of Stockholm into the leading commercial and industrial city of Sweden. 31 Under the Hanseatic trade 2/3rds of Stockholm's imports consisted of textiles and 1/3 of salt. Exports from Sweden consisted of iron and copper. 32

However, the Swedes began to resent the monopoly trading position of the Hansa (mostly German citizens) and to resent the income they felt they lost to the Hansa. Consequently, when Gustav Vasa or Gustav I broke the monopoly power of the Hanseatic League he was regarded as a hero to the Swedish people. History now views Gustav I as the father of the modern Swedish nation. The foundations laid by Gustave would take time to develop. Furthermore, when Sweden did develop, freed itself from the Hanseatic League and entered its golden era, the fact the peasantry had traditionally been free meant that more of the economic benefits flowed back to them rather than going to a feudal landowning class. 33 This was not the case in other countries of Europe like Poland were the peasantry was still bound by serfdom and a strong feudalistic land owning system.

Swedish Empire
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The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658. Dominions in Prussia, held from 1629 to 1635, do not appear on this map. Sweden properKexholm CountySwedish IngriaSwedish EstoniaLivoniaSwedish Pomerania, Abp Bremen and Bp VerdenScania, Blekinge, Halland, Gotland and BohuslänTrøndelag and Møre og RomsdalJämtland, Härjedalen, Idre & Särna
History of Sweden (1611–1648), Swedish Empire, Swedish overseas colonies, Sweden and the Great Northern War, Absolute Monarchy in Sweden, Sweden-Finland, and Union between Sweden and Norway
During the 17th century Sweden emerged as a European great power. Before the emergence of the Swedish Empire, Sweden was a very poor and scarcely populated country on the fringe of European civilization, with no significant power or reputation. Sweden rose to prominence on a continental scale during the tenure of king Gustavus Adolphus, seizing territories from Russia and Poland–Lithuania in multiple conflicts, including the Thirty Years' War.

During the Thirty Years' War, Sweden conquered approximately half of the Holy Roman states. Gustav Adolphus planned to become the new Holy Roman Emperor, ruling over a united Scandinavia and the Holy Roman states, but he died at the Battle of Lützen in 1632. After the Battle of Nördlingen, Sweden's only significant military defeat of the war, pro-Swedish sentiment among the German states faded. These German provinces excluded themselves from Swedish power one by one, leaving Sweden with only a few northern German territories: Swedish Pomerania, Bremen-Verden and Wismar. The Swedish armies may have destroyed up to 2,000 castles, 18,000 villages and 1,500 towns in Germany, one-third of all German towns. 34

In the middle of the 17th century Sweden was the third largest country in Europe by land area, only surpassed by Russia and Spain. Sweden reached its largest territorial extent under the rule of Charles X after the treaty of Roskilde in 1658. 35 36 The foundation of Sweden's success during this period is credited to Gustav I's major changes on the Swedish economy in the 16th century, and his introduction of Protestantism. 37 In the 17th century, Sweden was engaged in many wars, for example with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with both sides competing for territories of today's Baltic states, with the disastrous Battle of Kircholm being one of the highlights. 38 One-third of the Finnish population died in the devastating famine that struck the country in 1696. 39 Famine also hit Sweden, 40 killing roughly 10% of Sweden's population. 41

The Swedes conducted a series of invasions into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, known as the Deluge. After more than half a century of almost constant warfare, the Swedish economy had deteriorated. It became the lifetime task of Charles' son, Charles XI, to rebuild the economy and refit the army. His legacy to his son, the coming ruler of Sweden Charles XII, was one of the finest arsenals in the world, a large standing army and a great fleet. Sweden's largest threat at this time, Russia, had a larger army but was far behind in both equipment and training.

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Death of Gustav II Adolf at the Battle of Lützen.
After the Battle of Narva in 1700, one of the first battles of the Great Northern War, the Russian army was so severely decimated that Sweden had an open chance to invade Russia. However, Charles did not pursue the Russian army, instead turning against Poland-Lithuania and defeating the Polish king Augustus II and his Saxon allies at the Battle of Kliszow in 1702. This gave Russia time to rebuild and modernize its army.

After the success of invading Poland, Charles decided to make an invasion attempt of Russia which ended in a decisive Russian victory at the Battle of Poltava in 1709. After a long march exposed to cossack raids, Russian Tsar Peter the Great's scorched-earth techniques and the cold Russian climate, the Swedes stood weakened with a shattered morale and enormously outnumbered against the Russian army at Poltava. The defeat meant the beginning of the end for the Swedish Empire.

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The Battle of Poltava in 1709. In the years following Poltava, Russia occupied all the Swedish annexations on the Baltic coast and even Finland.
Charles XII attempted to invade Norway 1716; however, he was shot dead at Fredriksten fortress in 1718. The Swedes were not militarily defeated at Fredriksten, but the whole structure and organization of the Norwegian campaign fell apart with the king's death, and the army withdrew.

Forced to cede large areas of land in the Treaty of Nystad in 1721, Sweden also lost its place as an empire and as the dominant state on the Baltic Sea. With Sweden's lost influence, Russia emerged as an empire and became one of Europe's dominant nations. As the war finally ended in 1721, Sweden had lost an estimated 200,000 men, 150,000 of those from the area of present-day Sweden and 50,000 from the Finnish part of Sweden. 42

In the 18th century, Sweden did not have enough resources to maintain its territories outside Scandinavia, and most of them were lost, culminating with the 1809 loss of eastern Sweden to Russia which became the semi-autonomous Duchy of Finland in Imperial Russia.

In interest of reestablishing Swedish dominance in the Baltic Sea, Sweden allied itself against its traditional ally and benefactor, France, in the Napoleonic Wars. Sweden's role in the Battle of Leipzig gave it the authority to force Denmark-Norway, an ally of France, to cede Norway to the King of Sweden on 14 January 1814 in exchange for northern German provinces, at the Treaty of Kiel. The Norwegian attempts to keep their status as a sovereign state were rejected by the Swedish king, Charles XIII. He launched a military campaign against Norway on July 27, 1814, ending in the Convention of Moss, which forced Norway into a personal union with Sweden under the Swedish crown, which was not dissolved until 1905. The 1814 campaign was the last war in which Sweden participated as a combatant. Swedish troops partake in peace-keeping missions and currently have forces deployed in Afghanistan and Kosovo.

Modern history
Modernization of Sweden and Swedish emigration to the United States
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Swedish emigrants boarding ship in Gothenburg in 1905.
There was a significant population increase during the 18th and 19th centuries, which the writer Esaias Tegnér in 1833 attributed to "the peace, the (smallpox) vaccine, and the potatoes" . 43 Between 1750 and 1850, the population in Sweden doubled. According to some scholars, mass emigration to America became the only way to prevent famine and rebellion; over 1% of the population emigrated annually during the 1880s. 44 Nevertheless, Sweden remained poor, retaining a nearly entirely agricultural economy even as Denmark and Western European countries began to industrialize. 44 45

Many looked towards America for a better life during this time. It is believed that between 1850 and 1910 more than one million Swedes moved to the United States. 46 In the early 20th century, more Swedes lived in Chicago than in Gothenburg (Sweden's second largest city). 47 Most Swedish immigrants moved to the Midwestern United States, with a large population in Minnesota. Some Swedes moved to Delaware. Some also moved to Canada and others in smaller numbers to Argentina.

Despite the slow rate of industrialization into the 19th century, many important changes were taking place in the agrarian economy because of innovations and the large population growth. 48 These innovations included government-sponsored programs of enclosure, aggressive exploitation of agricultural lands, and the introduction of new crops such as the potato. 48 Because the Swedish peasantry had never been enserfed as elsewhere in Europe, 49 the Swedish farming culture began to take on a critical role in the Swedish political process, which has continued through modern times with modern Agrarian party (now called the Centre Party). 50 Between 1870 and 1914, Sweden began developing the industrialized economy that exists today. 51

Strong grassroots movements sprung up in Sweden during the latter half of the nineteenth century (trade unions, temperance groups, and independent religious groups), creating a strong foundation of democratic principles. In 1889 The Swedish Social Democratic Party was founded. These movements precipitated Sweden's migration into a modern parliamentary democracy, achieved by the time of World War I. As the Industrial Revolution progressed during the twentieth century, people gradually began moving into cities to work in factories and became involved in socialist unions. A revolution was avoided in 1917 by the introduction of a full parliamentarism, thus the country was democratized by the social democrats, left socialists and liberals.

World Wars
Sweden during World War II
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Swedish soldier during World War II.
Sweden remained officially neutral during World War I and World War II, although its neutrality during World War II has been disputed. 52 53 Sweden was under German influence for much of the war, as ties to the rest of the world were cut off through blockades. 52 The Swedish government felt that it was in no position to openly contest Germany, 54 and therefore made some concessions. 55 Sweden also supplied steel and machined parts to Germany throughout the war. However, Sweden supported Norwegian resistance, and in 1943 helped rescue Danish Jews from deportation to concentration camps.

Toward the end of the war, Sweden began to play a role in humanitarian efforts and many refugees, among them many Jews from Nazi-occupied Europe, were saved partly because of the Swedish involvement in rescue missions at the internment camps and partly because Sweden served as a haven for refugees, primarily from the Nordic countries and the Baltic states. 54 Nevertheless, internal and external critics have argued that Sweden could have done more to resist the Nazi war effort, even if risking occupation. 54

Cold War

Sweden publicly claimed to be a neutral country and the image was forcefully maintained, but unofficially Sweden's leadership had strong ties with the United States. In the early 1960s Sweden and the United States agreed to deploy nuclear submarines off the Swedish west coast. In the same year Sweden made a defence pact with the United States.

Following the war, Sweden took advantage of an intact industrial base, social stability and its natural resources to expand its industry to supply the rebuilding of Europe. 56 Sweden was part of the Marshall Plan and participated in the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). During most of the post-war era, the country was governed by the Swedish Social Democratic Party (in Swedish: Socialdemokraterna ). Social democrats imposed corporatist policies: favouring big capitalist corporations and big unions, especially Swedish Trade Union Confederation, affiliated with Social Democrats. 57 The amount of bureaucrats rose from normal levels in the 1960s to very high levels by the 1980s. 57 Sweden was open to trade and pursued an internationaly competitive manufacturing sector. Growth was good until 1970s.

Sweden, like countries around the globe, entered a period of economic decline and upheaval, following the oil embargoes of 1973–74 and 1978–79. 58 In the 1980s pillars of Swedish industry were massively restructured. Shipbuilding was discontinued, wood pulp was integrated into modernized paper production, the steel industry was concentrated and specialized, and mechanical engineering was robotized. 59

Between 1970 and 1990 the overall tax burden rose by over 10%, and the growth was very low compared to most other countries in Western Europe. The marginal income tax for workers reached over 80%. Eventually government spent over half of the country's gross domestic product. Sweden steadily declined from its perennial top five GDP per capita ranking. Since the late 1970s, Sweden's economic policies were increasingly questioned by economists and Ministry of Finance officials. 57

Carl XVI Gustaf has been Sweden's king and head of state since 1973.

Recent history
History of Sweden (since 1989)
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The signing of the Maastricht Treaty.
A bursting real estate bubble caused by inadequate controls on lending combined with an international recession and a policy switch from anti-unemployment policies to anti-inflationary policies resulted in a fiscal crisis in the early 1990s. 60 Sweden's GDP declined by around 5%. In 1992, there was a run on the currency, with the central bank briefly jacking up interest to 500%.

The response of the government was to cut spending and institute a multitude of reforms to improve Sweden's competitiveness, among them reducing the welfare state and privatizing public services and goods. Much of the political establishment promoted EU membership, and the Swedish referendum passed with 52% in favour of joining the EU on 13 November 1994. Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995.

Sweden remains non-aligned militarily, although it participates in some joint military exercises with NATO and some other countries, in addition to extensive cooperation with other European countries in the area of defence technology and defence industry. Among others, Swedish companies export weapons that are used by the American military in Iraq. 61 Sweden also has a long history of participating in international military operations, including most recently, Afghanistan, where Swedish troops are under NATO command, and in EU sponsored peacekeeping operations in UN protectorate Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Cyprus. Sweden held the chair of the European Union from 1 July to 31 December 2009.

Geography and climate
References: Geography of Sweden
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View of the Stora Sjöfallet National Park.
Situated in NorthernEurope, Sweden lies west of the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia, providing a long coastline, and forms the eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. To the west is the Scandinavian mountain chain (Skanderna), a range that separates Sweden from Norway. Finland is located to its northeast. It has maritime borders with Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, and it is also linked to Denmark (southwest) by the Öresund Bridge. At 449,964 km 2 (173,732 sq mi), Sweden is the 55th largest country in the world. It is the 5th largest in Europe, and the largest in Northern Europe. The land area is equal to Uzbekistan with a population in 2008 of over 9.2 million people.

The lowest elevation in Sweden is in the bay of Lake Hammarsjön, near Kristianstad at -2.41 m (−7.91 ft) below sea level. The highest point is Kebnekaise at 2,111 m (6,926 ft) above sea level.

Sweden has 25 provinces or landskap (landscapes), based on culture, geography and history; Bohuslän, Blekinge, Dalarna, Dalsland, Gotland, Gästrikland, Halland, Hälsingland, Härjedalen, Jämtland, Lapland, Medelpad, Norrbotten, Närke, Skåne, Småland, Södermanland, Uppland, Värmland, Västmanland, Västerbotten, Västergötland, Ångermanland, Öland and Östergötland. While these provinces serve no political or administrative purpose, they play an important role for people's self-identification. The provinces are usually grouped together in three large lands , parts, the northern Norrland, the central Svealand and southern Götaland. The sparsely populated Norrland encompasses almost 60% of the country.

About 15% of Sweden lies north of the Arctic Circle. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, with increasing forest coverage northward. Around 65% of Sweden's total land area is covered with forests. The highest population density is in the Öresund region in southern Sweden and in the valley of lake Mälaren near to Stockholm. Gotland and Öland are Sweden's largest islands; Vänern and Vättern are its largest lakes. Vänern is the third largest in Europe, after Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega in Russia.

Climate
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The Scandinavian Mountains.
Most of Sweden has a temperate climate, despite its northern latitude, with four distinct seasons and mild temperatures throughout the year. The country can be divided into three types of climate; the southernmost part has an oceanic climate, the central part has a humid continental climate and the northernmost part has a subarctic climate. 62 However, Sweden is much warmer and drier than other places at a similar latitude, and even somewhat further south, mainly because of the Gulf Stream. 63 64 For example, central and southern Sweden has much warmer winters than many parts of Russia, Canada, and the northern United States. 65 Because of its high latitude, the length of daylight varies greatly. North of the Arctic Circle, the sun never sets for part of each summer, and it never rises for part of each winter. In the capital, Stockholm, daylight lasts for more than 18 hours in late June but only around 6 hours in late December. Sweden receives between 1,100 to 1,900 hours of sunshine annually. 66 67

Temperatures vary greatly from north to south. Southern and central parts of the country have warm summers and cold winters, with average high temperatures of 20 to 25 °C (68 to 77 °F) 68 and lows of 12 to 15 °C (54 to 59 °F) 69 in the summer, and average temperatures of -4 to 2 °C (25 to 36 °F) in the winter, 70 while the northern part of the country has shorter, cooler summers and longer, colder and snowier winters, with temperatures that often drop below freezing from September through May. 71 72 Occasional heatwaves can occur a few times each year, and temperatures above 25 °C (77 °F) occur on many days during the summer, sometimes even in the north. The highest temperature ever recorded in Sweden was 38 °C (100 °F) in Målilla in 1947, while the coldest temperature ever recorded was −52.6 °C (−62.7 °F) in Vuoggatjålme in 1966. 73 74

On average, most of Sweden receives between 500 and 800 mm (20 and 31 in) of precipitation each year, making it considerably drier than the global average. The southwestern part of the country receives more precipitation, between 1000 and 1200 mm (39 and 47 in), and some mountain areas in the north are estimated to receive up to 2000 mm (79 in). Snowfall mainly occurs from December through March in southern Sweden, from November through April in central Sweden, and from October through May in northern Sweden. Despite northerly locations, southern and central Sweden tend to be virtually free of snow in some winters. 75 76

Average high and low temperatures in various cities in Sweden (°C) 77
City - Jan - Feb - Mar - Apr - May - Jun - Jul - Aug - Sep - Oct - Nov - Dec
Kiruna - -10/-16 - -8/-15 - -4/-13 - 2/-7 - 8/0 - 14/6 - 17/8 - 14/6 - 9/2 - 1/-4 - -5/-10 - -8/-15
Östersund - -5/-10 - -3/-9 - 0/-6 - 5/-2 - 12/3 - 16/8 - 18/10 - 17/10 - 12/6 - 6/2 - 0/-3 - -3/-8
Stockholm - 1/-2 - 1/-3 - 4/-2 - 11/3 - 16/8 - 20/12 - 23/15 - 22/14 - 17/10 - 10/6 - 5/2 - 1/-1
Gothenburg (Göteborg) - 2/-1 - 4/-1 - 6/0 - 11/3 - 16/8 - 19/12 - 22/14 - 22/14 - 18/10 - 12/6 - 7/3 - 3/-1
Visby - 1/-2 - 1/-3 - 3/-2 - 9/1 - 14/6 - 18/10 - 21/13 - 20/13 - 16/9 - 10/6 - 5/2 - 2/0
Malmö - 3/-1 - 3/-1 - 6/0 - 12/3 - 17/8 - 19/11 - 22/13 - 22/14 - 18/10 - 12/6 - 8/4 - 4/1
Government
References: Politics of Sweden
Sweden is a constitutional monarchy, in which King Carl XVI Gustaf is head of state, but royal power has long been limited to official and ceremonial functions. 78 The Economist Intelligence Unit, while acknowledging that democracy is difficult to measure, listed Sweden in first place in its index of democracy assessing 167 countries. 79 The nation's legislative body is the Riksdag (Swedish Parliament), with 349 members, which chooses the Prime Minister. Parliamentary elections are held every four years, on the third Sunday of September.
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Sweden municipal borders
Counties and municipalities
Referencess: Counties of Sweden and Municipalities of Sweden
Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into twenty-one counties (län ): Stockholm, Uppsala, Södermanland, Östergötland, Jönköping, Kronoberg, Kalmar, Gotland, Blekinge, Skåne, Halland, Västra Götaland, Värmland, Örebro, Västmanland, Dalarna, Gävleborg, Västernorrland, Jämtland, Västerbotten, and Norrbotten.

Each county has a County Administrative Board or länsstyrelse , which is appointed by the government (the first Swedish County Administrative Board was made up by the Swedish Prime Minister Axel Oxenstierna in 1634). In each county there is also a separate County Council or landsting , which is elected directly by the people.

Each county further divides into a number of municipalities or kommuner , with a total of 290 municipalities in 2004. Municipal government in Sweden is similar to city commission government and cabinet-style council government. A legislative municipal assembly (kommunfullmäktige) of between 31 and 101 members (always an uneven number) is elected from party-list proportional representation at municipal elections, held every four years in conjunction with the national parliamentary elections.

The municipalities are divided into a total of 2,512 parishes, or församlingar . These have traditionally been a subdivision of the Church of Sweden but still have importance as districts for census and elections. There are older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five provinces and three lands, which still retain cultural significance.

Further information: Subdivisions of Sweden and National Areas of Sweden
Political history
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Kingdoms of Svear (Swedish) and Götar (Geats) in the 12th century, with modern borders in grey
The actual age of the kingdom of Sweden is unknown. 80 It depends mostly on whether Sweden should be considered a nation when the Svear (Swedes) ruled Svealand or if the emergence of the nation started with the Svear and the Götar (Geats) of Götaland being united under one ruler. In the first case, Sweden was first mentioned as having one single ruler in the year 98 by Tacitus, but it is almost impossible to know for how long it had been this way. However, historians usually start the line of Swedish monarchs from when Svealand and Götaland were ruled under the same king, namely Erik the Victorious and his son Olof Skötkonung in the 10th century. These events are often described as the consolidation of Sweden, although substantial areas were conquered and incorporated later.

Earlier kings, for which no reliable historical sources exist, can be read about in mythical kings of Sweden and semi-legendary kings of Sweden. Many of these kings are only mentioned in various saga and blend with Norse mythology.

The title Sveriges och Götes Konung was last used for Gustaf I of Sweden, after which the title became "King of Sweden, of the Goths and of the Wends" ( Sveriges, Götes och Vendes Konung ) in official documentation. Up until the beginning of the 1920s, all laws in Sweden were introduced with the words, "We, the king of Sweden, of the Goths and Wends". This title was used up until 1973. 81 The present King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, was the first monarch officially proclaimed "King of Sweden" ( Sveriges Konung ) with no additional peoples mentioned in his title.

The term Riksdag was used for the first time in the 1540s, although the first meeting where representatives of different social groups were called to discuss and determine affairs affecting the country as a whole took place as early as 1435, in the town of Arboga. 82 During the assemblies of 1527 and 1544, under King Gustav Vasa, representatives of all four estates of the realm (clergy, nobility, townsmen and peasants) were called on to participate for the first time. 82 The monarchy became hereditary in 1544.

Executive power was historically shared between the King and a noble Privy Council until 1680, followed by the King's autocratic rule initiated by the common estates of the Parliament. As a reaction to the failed Great Northern War, a parliamentary system was introduced in 1719, followed by three different flavours of constitutional monarchy in 1772, 1789 and 1809, the latter granting several civil liberties. The monarch remains as the formal, but merely symbolic, head of state with ceremonial duties.

The Riksdag of the Estates consisted of two chambers. In 1866 Sweden became a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament, with the First Chamber indirectly elected by local governments, and the Second Chamber directly elected in national elections every four years. In 1971 the Riksdag became unicameral. Legislative power was (symbolically) shared between king and parliament until 1975. Swedish taxation is controlled by the Riksdag (parliament).

Modern political system
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Riksdag building
Constitutionally, the 349-member Riksdag (Parliament) holds supreme authority in modern Sweden. The Riksdag is responsible for choosing the prime minister, who then appoints the government (the ministers). The legislative power is then shared between the parliament and the Prime Minister led government. The executive power is exercised by the government, while the judiciary is independent. Sweden lacks compulsory judicial review, although the non-compulsory review carried out by lagrådet (Law Council) is mostly respected in technical matters but less so in controversial political matters. Acts of the parliament and government decrees can be made inapplicable at every level if they are manifestly against constitutional laws. However, because of the restrictions in this form of judicial review and a weak judiciary, this has had little practical consequence.

Legislation may be initiated by the cabinet or by members of Parliament. Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation for a four-year term. The Constitution of Sweden can be altered by the Riksdag, which requires a simple but absolute majority and two decisions with general elections in between. Sweden has three other constitutional laws: the Act of Royal Succession, the Freedom of Press Act and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression.

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Carl XVI Gustaf, the King of Sweden and head of state
The Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading political role since 1917, after Reformists had confirmed their strength and the revolutionaries left the party. After 1932, the cabinets have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only four general elections (1976, 1979, 1991 and 2006) have given the centre-right bloc enough seats in Parliament to form a government. However, poor economic performance since the beginning of the 1970s, and especially the crisis at the beginning of the 1990s, have forced Sweden to reform its political system to become more like other European countries. In the 2006 general election the Moderate Party, allied with the Centre Party, Liberal People's Party, and the Christian Democrats, with a common political platform, won a majority of the votes. Together they have formed a majority government under the leadership of the Moderate party's leader Fredrik Reinfeldt. The next elections will be held in September 2010. 83
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Stockholm Palace, the official seat of the Swedish King
Election turnout in Sweden has always been high by international comparison, although it has declined in recent decades, and is currently around 80% (80.11 in 2002, and 81.99% in 2006). Swedish politicians enjoyed a high degree of confidence from the citizens in the 1960s but it has since declined steadily and has a markedly lower level of trust than its Scandinavian neighbours. 84

Some Swedish political figures that have become known worldwide include Raoul Wallenberg, Folke Bernadotte, former Secretary General of the United NationsDag Hammarskjöld, former Prime Minister Olof Palme, former Prime Minister and Foreign ministerCarl Bildt, former President of the General Assembly of the United NationsJan Eliasson, and former International Atomic Energy Agency Iraq inspector Hans Blix.

Political movements

Sweden has a history of strong political involvement by ordinary people through its "popular movements" ( Folkrörelser ), the most notable being trade unions, the independent Christian movement, the temperance movement, the women's movement and more recently the sports clarification needed ] and intellectual property pirate movements.

Sweden is currently leading the EU in statistics measuring equality in the political system and equality in the education system. 85 The Global Gender Gap Report 2006 ranked Sweden as the number one country in terms of gender equality. 86

Law, law enforcement, and judicial system
References: Judicial system of Sweden
The Supreme Court of Sweden is the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent. The Supreme Court consists of 16 Councillors of Justice or justitieråd which are appointed by the government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, and the government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court.

Law enforcement in Sweden is carried out by several government entities. The Swedish Police Service is a Government agency concerned with police matters. The National Task Force is a national SWAT unit within the National Criminal Investigation Department. Swedish Security Service's responsibilities are counter-espionage, anti-terrorist activities, protection of the constitution and protection of sensitive objects and people.

According to a victimization survey of 1,201 residents in 2005, Sweden has above average crime rates compared to other EU countries. Sweden has high or above average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. Sweden has low levels of burglary, car theft and drug problems. Bribe seeking is rare. 87

Foreign policy
References: Foreign relations of Sweden
Throughout the twentieth century, Swedish foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime. 56 "Sweden's government was left to pursue an independent course based on a foreign policy defined as nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war."

Sweden's doctrine of neutrality is often traced back to the 19th century as the country has not been in a state of war since the end of the Swedish campaign against Norway in 1814. During World War II Sweden joined neither the allied nor axis powers. This has sometimes been disputed since in effect Sweden allowed in select cases the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods, 52 54 especially iron ore from mines in northern Sweden, which was vital to the German war machine. 54 88

During the early Cold War era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment with a low profile in international affairs, although it also pursued a security policy based on strong national defence to deter attack. 89 At the same time, the country maintained relatively close informal connections with the Western bloc, especially in the realm of intelligence exchange. In 1952, a Swedish DC-3 was shot down over the Baltic Sea by a Soviet MiG-15jetfighter. Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO. 90 Another plane, a Catalinasearch and rescue plane, was sent out a few days later and shot down by the Soviets as well. Olof Palme, the former prime minister of Sweden, visited Cuba during the 1970s and showed his support for Cuba in his speech.

Beginning in the late 1960s, Sweden for a period attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations. This involved significant activity in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World. Since the assassination of Olof Palme in 1986 and the end of the Cold War, this has been significantly toned down, although Sweden remains comparatively active in peace keeping missions and maintains a generous foreign aid budget.

In 1981 a Soviet Whiskey class submarine ran aground close to the Swedish naval base at Karlskrona in the southern part of the country. It has never been clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational mistake or if it was a matter of espionage against Swedish military potential. The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union.

Since 1995 Sweden has been a member of the European Union, and as a consequence of a new world security situation the country's foreign policy doctrine has been partly modified, with Sweden playing a more active role in European security co-operation.

Military
References: Swedish Armed Forces
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The JAS 39 Gripen is an advanced Swedish multi-role fighter aircraft of the Swedish Air Force.
Försvarsmakten (Swedish Armed Forces) is a government agency reporting to the Swedish Ministry of Defence and responsible for the peacetime operation of the armed forces of Sweden. The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war. The armed forces are divided into Army, Air Force and Navy. The head of the armed forces is the Supreme Commander ( Överbefälhavaren , ÖB), the most senior officer in the country. Up to 1974 the head of state (=the King) was pro forma Commander-in-Chief, but in reality it was clearly understood all through the 20th century that the Monarch would have no active role as a military leader.

When King Gustav V asserted his right to decide and bypass the government in military matters just before the First World War ( "borggårdskrisen" , the Castle Court Crisis) it was seen as a deliberate provocation against established terms of how the country would be ruled. The office of an appointed Supreme Commander was set up in 1939; before that date, from the late 19th century onwards, the leading men of the army and navy would report directly to the cabinet (and the king), and no fully unified command existed in the professional military sphere itself.

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A Swedish ArmyLeopard 2main battle tank.
Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted. In recent years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly. Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service. All soldiers serving abroad must by law be volunteers. In 1975 the total number of conscripts was 45,000. By 2003 it was down to 15,000.

Beginning 1 July 2010 Sweden will stop routine conscription, switching to an all volunteer force unless otherwise required for defence readiness. 91 92 93 The need to recruit only the soldiers later prepared to volunteer for international service will be emphasized. The total forces gathered would consist of about 60,000 men. This could be compared with the 80s before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1,000,000 men.

Swedish units have taken part in peacekeeping operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Liberia, Lebanon, Afghanistan and Chad.

Currently, one of the most important tasks for the Swedish Armed Forces has been to form a Swedish-led EU Battle Group to which Norway, Finland, Ireland and Estonia will also contribute. 94 The Nordic Battle Group (NBG) had a 10-day deployment readiness during the first half of 2008 and, although Swedish led, had its Operational Headquarters (OHQ) in Northwood, outside London.

Economy
References: Economy of Sweden
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Gross Regional Product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2004).
Sweden is an export-oriented mixed economy featuring a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labour force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Sweden's engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Telecommunications, the automotive industry and the pharmaceutical industries are also of great importance. Agriculture accounts for 2 percent of GDP and employment.

The 20 largest (by turnover in 2007) companies registered in Sweden are Volvo, Ericsson, Vattenfall, Skanska, Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget, Electrolux, Volvo Personvagnar, TeliaSonera, Sandvik, Scania, ICA, Hennes & Mauritz, Nordea, Preem, Atlas Copco, Securitas, Nordstjernan, and SKF. 95 Sweden's industry is overwhelmingly in private control; unlike some other industrialized Western countries, such as Austria and Italy, publicly owned enterprises were always of minor importance.

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Real GDP growth in Sweden, 1996–2006.
Some 4.5 million residents are working, out of which around a third with tertiary education. GDP per hour worked is the world's 9th highest at 31 USD in 2006, compared to 22 USD in Spain and 35 USD in the United States. 96 According to OECD, deregulation, globalization, and technology sector growth have been key productivity drivers. 96 GDP per hour worked is growing 2½ per cent a year for the economy as a whole and trade-terms-balanced productivity growth 2%. 96 Sweden is a world leader in privatized pensions and pension funding problems are relatively small compared to many other Western European countries. 97

The Swedish labour market has become more flexible, but it still has some widely acknowledged problems. 96 The typical worker receives 40% of his income after the tax wedge. The slowly declining overall taxation, 51.1% of GDP in 2007, is still nearly double of that in the United States or Ireland. The share of employment financed via tax income amounts to a third of Swedish workforce, a substantially higher proportion than in most other countries. Overall, GDP growth has been fast since reforms in the early 1990s, especially in manufacturing. 98

The World Economic Forum 2009-2010 competitiveness index ranks Sweden the 4th most competitive economy in the world. 99 Sweden is ranked 6th in the IMD Competitiveness Yearbook 2009, scoring high in private sector efficiency. 100 According to the book, The Flight of the Creative Class , by the U.S. economist, Professor Richard Florida of the University of Toronto, Sweden is ranked as having the best creativity in Europe for business and is predicted to become a talent magnet for the world's most purposeful workers. The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business—talent, technology and tolerance. 101

Swedes have rejected the euro in a popular vote, and Sweden maintains its own currency, the Swedish krona (SEK). The Swedish Riksbank—founded in 1668 and thus making it the oldest central bank in the world—is currently focusing on price stability with its inflation target of 2%. According to the Economic Survey of Sweden 2007 by the OECD, the average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mid-1990s, largely because of deregulation and quick utilization of globalization. 96

The largest trade flows are with Germany, the United States, Norway, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Finland.

Energy and transport infrastructure
References: Transport in Sweden
Nordic energy market, Nuclear power phase-out in Sweden, and Oil phase-out in Sweden
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Commuter train in Stockholm.
Sweden's energy market is largely privatized. The Nordic energy market is one of the first liberalized energy markets in Europe and it is traded in Nord Pool and Nord Pool Spot. In 2006, out of a total electricity production of 139 TWh, electricity from hydropower accounted for 61 TWh (44%), and nuclear power delivered 65 TWh (47%). At the same time, the use of biofuels, peat etc. produced 13 TWh (9%) of electricity, while wind power produced 1 TWh (1%). Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh. 102 Biomass is mainly used to produce heat for district heating and central heating and industry processes.

On the other hand, Sweden has proposed ban gasoline fossil fuel-driven vehicles by 2025. 103

The 1973 oil crisis strengthened Sweden's commitment to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels. Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power. The use of nuclear power has been limited, however. Among other things, the accident of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (US) prompted the Swedish parliament to ban new nuclear plants. In March 2005, an opinion poll showed that 83% supported maintaining or increasing nuclear power. 104 Politicians have made announcements about oil phase-out in Sweden, decrease of nuclear power, and multi-billion dollar investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency. 105 106 The country has for many years pursued a strategy of indirect taxation as an instrument of environmental policy, including energy taxes in general and carbon dioxide taxes in particular. 105

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The Öresund Bridge between Malmö and Copenhagen in Denmark.
Sweden has 162,707 km (101,101 mi) of paved road and 1,428 km (887 mi) of expressways. Motorways run through Sweden, Denmark and over the Öresund Bridge to Stockholm, Gothenburg, Uppsala and Uddevalla. The system of motorways is still under construction and a new motorway from Uppsala to Gävle was finished on October 17, 2007. Sweden had left-hand traffic (Vänstertrafik in Swedish) from approximately 1736 and continued to do so well into the 20th century. Voters rejected right-hand traffic in 1955, but after the Riksdag passed legislation in 1963 changeover took place in 1967, known in Swedish as Dagen H.

The rail transport market is privatized, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, many operators are still owned by state or municipalities. Operators include SJ, Veolia Transport, Connex Group, Green Cargo, Tågkompaniet, Inlandsbanan, and a number of regional companies. Most of the railways are owned and operated by Banverket.

The largest airports include Stockholm-Arlanda Airport (17.91 million passengers in 2007) 40 km (25 mi) north of Stockholm, Gothenburg-Landvetter Airport (4.3 million passengers in 2006), and Stockholm-Skavsta Airport (2.0 million passengers). Sweden hosts the two largest port companies in Scandinavia, Port of Göteborg AB (Gothenburg) and the transnational company Copenhagen Malmö Port AB.

Public policy
Nordic model and Swedish welfare
Sweden has historically provided solid support for free trade (except agriculture) and mostly relatively strong and stable property rights (both private and public), though some economists have pointed out that Sweden promoted industries with tariffs and used publicly subsidied R&D during the country's early critical years of industrialisation. 107 After World War II a succession of governments increased the welfare state and the tax burden and Sweden's economic growth was one of the highest in the industrial world, but from the 70s and onwards Sweden's GDP growth fell behind other industrialized countries and the country's per capita ranking fell from the 4th to 14th place in a few decades. 108 From the mid 90s until today Sweden's economic growth has once again accelerated and has been higher than in most other industrialized countries (including the US) during the last 15 years. . 109 During the postwar years of welfare state expansion Sweden radically changed from a divided and often extremely unequal society into one of the most equal and developed on earth. The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life—to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development—far ahead of some much wealthier countries (for example the United States). 110


Sweden started to move away from this model in the 1980s, and according to the OECD and to McKinsey, Sweden has recently been relatively fast in liberalization compared to countries such as France. Deregulation-induced competition helped Sweden to halt the economic decline and restore strong growth rates in the 2000s. 96 111 The current Swedish government is continuing the trend to pursue moderate reforms. 96 112 Growth has been higher than in many other EU-15 countries.

Sweden even adopted market-oriented agricultural policies in 1990. Since the 1930s, the agricultural sector had been controlled by an "iron triangle" of special interest farming organizations, politicians, and bureaucrats. This coalition formed a top-down administration that controlled prices and restricted competition, consequently hurting consumers. In the 1980s, a group of economists managed to get agricultural policy on the public agenda. Two prominent publications, The Political Economy of the Food Sector: The Case of Sweden and War Preparedness or Protectionism? , fueled the debate. An alliance with the Ministry of Finance and public choice analysis exposed the "iron triangle". In June 1990, the Parliament voted for a new agricultural policy marking a significant shift to a freer price system coordinated by competition. As a result, food prices fell somewhat. However, the liberalizations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened.” 113

Since the late 1960s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota (as percentage of GDP) in the industrialized world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries. Sweden has a two step progressive tax scale with a municipal income tax of about 30% and an additional high-income state tax of 20–25% when a salary exceeds roughly 320,000 SEK per year. Payroll taxes amount to 32%. In addition, a national VAT of 25% is added to many things bought by private citizens, with the exception of food (12% VAT), transportation, and books (6% VAT). Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e.g. electricity, petrol/diesel and alcoholic beverages.

As of 2007

Eighty percent of the workforce is organized through the trade-unions which have the right to elect two representatives to the board in all Swedish companies with more than 25 employees. 115 Sweden have a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: the average worker loses 24 days due to sickness. 98 In December 2008, the number employed in age group 16–64 was 75.0%. The employment tendency was very strong in 2007. The positive trend continued during the first half of 2008, but the rate of increase slackened. According to Statistics Sweden, the unemployment rate in December 2008 was at 6.4%. 116

Education
References: Education in Sweden
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Uppsala University (est. 1477
Children aged 1–5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten (Swedish: förskola or, colloquially, dagis ). Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school. In the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Swedish 15-year-old pupils score close to the OECD average. 117 After completing the 9th grade, about 90% of the students continue with a three-year upper secondary school ( gymnasium ), which can lead to both a job qualification or entrance eligibility to university. The school system is largely financed by taxes.

The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally 118 by introducing education vouchers in 1992 as one of the first countries in the world after The Netherlands. Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get. School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, which usually includes one or two different kinds of hot meals, a meal for vegetarians, salad bar, fruit, bread, and milk and/or water for drink. Some schools, especially kindergartens and middle schools, even serve breakfast for free to those who want to eat before school starts.

There are a number of different universities and colleges in Sweden, the oldest and largest of which are situated in Uppsala, Lund, Gothenburg and Stockholm. Only a few countries such as Canada, the United States, Japan and South Korea have higher levels of tertiary education degree holders. ] Along with several other European countries, the government also subsidizes tuition of international students pursuing a degree at Swedish institutions, although a recent bill passed in the Swedish parliament will limit this subsidy to students from EEA countries and Switzerland . 119

Demographics
Referencess: Demographics of Sweden and Swedish people
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Stockholm is the capital and largest city in Sweden.
Of the 2007 population, 13.4% (1.23 million) were born abroad. 120 This reflects the inter-Nordic migrations, earlier periods of labour immigration, and later decades of refugee and family immigration. Sweden has been transformed from a nation of emigration ending after World War I to a nation of immigration from World War II onwards. In 2008, immigration reached its highest level since records began with 101,171 people moving to Sweden. 121

As of 2008

Immigration from the Nordic countries reached a peak of more than 40,000 per year in 1969–70 when immigration law introduced in 1967 had made it more difficult for immigrants from outside the Nordic region to settle in Sweden for labour market policy reasons. Immigration by refugees and immigrating relatives of refugees from outside the Nordic region increased drastically during the late 1980s, with many of the immigrants arriving from Asia and the Americas, especially from Iran and Chile.

During the 1990s and onwards another large immigrant group came from former Yugoslavia and the Middle East. 123 On December 15, 2008 new labour immigration rules came into effect making it easier to immigrate from outside of the European Union for labour market reasons. Most labour-market immigrants so far are IT specialists and engineers from India, China and the United States. 124

During the period between 1820–1930 approximately 1.3 million Swedes, a third of the country's population, emigrated to North America and most of them to the United States. There are more than 4.4 million Swedish Americans according to a 2006 U.S. Census Bureau estimate. 125 In Canada, the community of Swedish ancestry is 330,000 strong. 126

Largest cities

As of 2009

Language
Referencess: Swedish language and Languages of Sweden
Swedish dialects
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Distribution of speakers of the Swedish language
The official language of Sweden is Swedish, a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian, but differing in pronunciation and orthography. Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than the Norwegians. Sweden Finns are Sweden's largest linguistic minority ] , comprising about 3% of Sweden's population and Finnish is recognized as a minority language.

Four other minority languages are also recognized (Meänkieli, Sami, Romani, and Yiddish). Swedish became Sweden's official language on 1 July 2009, when a new language law was implemented. 9 The issue of whether Swedish should be declared the official language has been raised in the past, and the parliament voted on the matter in 2005—but the proposal narrowly failed. 128

In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English due to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier.

English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as 1849, and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late 1940s. 129 Depending on the local school authorities, English is currently a compulsory subject between first grade and ninth grade, with all students continuing in secondary school studying English for at least another year. Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include (but are not limited to) German, French, and Spanish. Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers.

Religion
References: Religion in Sweden
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Uppsala Cathedral
Before the 11th century, Swedes adhered to Norse paganism, worshiping Æsir gods, with its centre at the Temple in Uppsala. With Christianization in the 11th century, the laws of the country were changed, forbidding worship of other deities into the late 19th century.

After the Protestant Reformation in the 1530s, a change significantly affected by Martin Luther's Swedish associate Olaus Petri, the Church and state were separated and the authority of Roman Catholic bishops abolished, allowing Lutheranism to prevail. This process was completed by the Uppsala Synod of 1593. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran Orthodoxy, small groups of non-Lutherans, especially CalvinistDutchmen, the Moravian Church and Walloons or French Huguenots from Belgium, played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile. The Sami originally had their own shamanistic religion, but they were converted to Lutheranism by Swedish missionaries in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Church of Sweden 130
Year - Population - Church members - Percentage
1972 - 8,146,000 - 7,754,784 - 95.2 %
1980 - 8,278,000 - 7,690,636 - 92.9 %
1990 - 8,573,000 - 7,630,350 - 89.0 %
2000 - 8,880,000 - 7,360,825 - 82.9 %
2005 - 9,048,000 - 6,967,498 - 77.0 %
2006 - 9,119,000 - 6,893,901 - 75.6 %
2007 - 9,179,000 - 6,820,161 - 74.3 %
2008 - 9,262,000 - 6,751,952 - 72.9 %
Not until liberalization in the late 18th century, however, were believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism, allowed to openly live and work in Sweden, and it remained illegal until 1860 for Lutheran Swedes to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelicalfree churches, and, towards the end of the century secularism, leading many to distance themselves from Church rituals. Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of 1860, but only under the provision of entering another denomination. The right to stand outside any religious denomination was established in the Law on Freedom of Religion in 1951.

At the end of 2008, 72.9% of Swedes belonged to the Church of Sweden (Lutheran); this number has been decreasing by about 1% a year for the last two decades. Church of Sweden services are sparsely attended (hovering in the single digit percentages of the population). 131 The reason for the large number of inactive members is partly that until 1996, children became members automatically at birth if at least one of the parents was a member. Since 1996, only children that are christened become members. Some 275,000 Swedes are today members of various free churches (where congregation attendance is much higher), and, in addition, immigration has meant that there are now some 92,000 Roman Catholics and 100,000 Eastern Orthodox Christians living in Sweden. 132

Despite the large numbers of membership in the Church of Sweden, several studies have found Sweden to be one of the most atheist countries in the world. According to Davie (1999), 85% of Swedes do not believe in God. 133 In the Eurostat survey, 23% of Swedish citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 53% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 23% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force".

Because of immigration, Sweden also has a significant Muslim population. Almost half a million are Muslims by tradition, but approximately 5% (25,000) of these actively practise Islam (in the sense of attending Friday prayer and praying five times a day). 134 Åke Sander stated in 2004 that "we do not think it unreasonable to put the figure of religious Muslims in Sweden at the time of writing at close to 150 000". 135 (See Islam in Sweden .

Health
Healthcare in Sweden and Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare
Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality. It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. A person seeking care first contacts a clinic for a doctor's appointment, and may then be referred to a specialist by the clinic physician, who may in turn recommend either in-patient or out-patient treatment, or an elective care option. The health care is governed by the 21 landsting of Sweden and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients.
Science and technology
Being an advanced industrial nation, research plays a key role for economic development as well as for society at large, Sweden's high-quality scientific and technological development is renowned throughout the world.

Altogether, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate nearly four per cent of GDP to research & development (R&D), which makes Sweden one of the countries that invest most in R&D in terms of percentage of GDP. The standard of Swedish research is high and Sweden is a world leader in a number of important fields. Sweden tops Europe in comparative statistics both in terms of research investments as a percentage of GDP and in the number of published scientific works per capita. 136

Though a relatively small country, Sweden has long been at the forefront of research and development. For several decades, the Swedish government, committed to strengthening R&D, has set high priorities on scientific and R&D activities. This strong engagement has helped make Sweden a leading country in terms of innovation.

For many years, Sweden has been a leading player among OECD countries in terms of its investments in and use of advanced technology. In international comparison, Swedish high-technology manufacturing is relatively large in all high-technology segments, and particularly in telecommunications and pharmaceuticals.

Statistics show that during the entire period 1970–2003, the Swedish national innovation system was among the leading countries in the OECD in terms of generating technological inventions, measured as international patenting in relation to population size. The statistics evaluating countries in terms of triadic patenting, i.e. patents assigned in the three patenting areas USA, EU and Japan, were even more outstanding. Only Switzerland reported a higher rate of triadic patenting.

Furthermore, Sweden ranked either as the first or second country publishing the highest number of scientific publications in the fields of medical science, natural science and engineering in 2001. Sweden was world-leading in medical science and second only to Switzerland in natural science and engineering in terms of the number of publications in relation to its population size.

In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterized by a large knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector, an increasing, but comparatively small, businessservice sector, and by international standards, a large public service sector. Large organizations both in manufacturing and services dominate the Swedish economy. 137

Inventions
References: Swedish inventions
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Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and institutor of the Nobel Prize.
In the 18th century Sweden's scientific revolution took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from professionals who had immigrated from mainland Europe. In 1739, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was founded, with people such as Carolus Linnaeus and Anders Celsius as early members. From the 1870s, engineering companies were created at an unmatched rate and engineers became heroes of the age. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers are still internationaly familiar. Gustaf Dalén founded AGA, and received the Nobel Prize for his sun valve. Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes. Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world. Jonas Wenström was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with Serbian inventor Tesla credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system. 138

The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground. Tetra Pak is an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. Håkan Lans invented the Automatic Identification System, a worldwide standard for shipping and civil aviation navigation. Losec, an ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the 1990s and was developed by AstraZeneca. A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors. 138

Sweden has a total of 33,523 patents as of 2007, according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office, and only ten other countries have more patents than Sweden. 139

Culture
References: Culture of Sweden
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Traditional Swedish rural house, painted in the traditional Swedish Falu red.
Sweden has many authors of worldwide recognition including August Strindberg, Astrid Lindgren, and Nobel Prize winners Selma Lagerlöf and Harry Martinson. In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes. The nation's most well-known artists are painters such as Carl Larsson and Anders Zorn, and the sculptors Tobias Sergel and Carl Milles.

Swedish twentieth-century culture is noted by pioneering works in the early days of cinema, with Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström. In the 1920s–1980s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationaly noted people within cinema. More recently, the films of Lukas Moodysson and Lasse Hallström have received international recognition.

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the "sexual revolution", with gender equality having particularly been promoted. 140 At the present time, the number of single people is one of the highest in the world. The early Swedish film I Am Curious (Yellow) (1967) reflected a liberal view of sexuality, including scenes of love making that caught international attention, and introduced the concept of the "Swedish sin".

Sweden has also become, in recent decades, fairly liberal regarding homosexuality, as is reflected in the popular acceptance of films such as Show Me Love , which is about two young lesbians in the small Swedish town of Åmål. Since 1 May 2009, Sweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with gender-neutral marriage, 141 Sweden also offers domestic partnerships for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Cohabitation ( sammanboende ) by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread although in recent years it has become administratively problematic with regard to proof in claims of "spousal" social security. Recently, Sweden is experiencing a baby boom. 142

Music
References: Music of Sweden
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Midsummer's Eve by Anders Zorn.
Sweden has a rich musical tradition, ranging from mediaeval folk ballads to hip hop music. The music of the pre-Christian Norse has been lost to history, although historical re-creations have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites. The instruments used were the lur (a sort of trumpet), simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums. It is possible that the Viking musical legacy lives on in some of the old Swedish folk music.

Sweden has a significant folk-music scene, both in the traditional style as well as more modern interpretations which often mix in elements of rock and jazz. Väsen is more of a traditionalist group, using a unique, traditional Swedish instrument called the nyckelharpa while Garmarna, Nordman, and Hedningarna have more modern elements. There is also Sami music, called the joik , which is actually a type of chant which is part of the traditional Saami animistic spirituality but has gained recognition in the international world of folk music. Sweden has a major market for new age and ecologically or environmentally aware music, as well a large portion of pop and rock music having liberal and left-wing political messages ] .

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Agnetha Fältskog of Swedish band ABBA performing in 1977.
Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition, deriving in part from the cultural importance of Swedish folk songs. In fact, out of a population of 9.2 million, it is estimated that five to six hundred thousand people sing in choirs. 143

Sweden is the third largest music exporter in the world, 144 ] with over 800 million dollars in 2007 years revenue, surpassed only by the US and the UK. 145 ] ABBA was one of the first internationaly well-known popular music bands from Sweden, and still ranks among the most prominent bands in the world, with about 370 million records sold. With ABBA, Sweden entered into a new era, in which Swedish pop music gained international prominence. There have been many other internationaly successful bands since, such as Roxette, Ace of Base, Europe, A-teens, The Cardigans and The Hives, to name some of the biggest, and recently there has been a surge of Swedish Indie pop bands such as Loney, Dear, Shout Out Louds and The Radio Dept.. One of the biggest bands in Sweden is the rockband Kent.

Sweden has also become known for a large number of heavy metal (mostly death metal and melodic death metal) as well as progressive- and power metal bands. Some of the most popular being In Flames, HammerFall, Pain of Salvation, Opeth,and Meshuggah. The renowned neoclassical power metal guitarist Yngwie Malmsteen is also from Sweden.

Sweden has a rather lively jazz scene. During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences. The Centre for Swedish Folk Music and Jazz Research has published an overview of jazz in Sweden by Lars Westin. 146

Media
References: Media in Sweden
Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper. The country's main quality morning papers are Dagens Nyheter (liberal), Göteborgs-Posten (liberal), Svenska Dagbladet (liberal conservative) and Sydsvenska Dagbladet (liberal). The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet (social democratic) and Expressen (liberal). The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro International, was originally founded in Stockholm, Sweden. The country's news is reported in English by, among others, The Local (liberal).

The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden. Licence funded radio broadcasts started in 1925. A second radio network was started in 1954 and a third opened 1962 in response to pirate radio stations. Non-profit community radio was allowed in 1979 and in 1993 commercial local radio started.

The licence funded television service was officially launched in 1956. A second channel, TV2, was launched in 1969. These two channels (operated by Sveriges Television since the late '70s) held a monopoly until the 1980s when cable and satellite television became available. The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in 1987. It was followed by Kanal 5 in 1989 (then known as Nordic Channel) and TV4 in 1990.

In 1991 the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network. TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in 1992, becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country.

Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in 1999 and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in 2007.

Literature
References: Swedish literature
The first literary text from Sweden is the Rök Runestone, carved during the Viking Age circa 800 AD. With the conversion of the land to Christianity around 1100 AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages, during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin. Therefore there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardized in the 16th century, a standardization largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in 1541. This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible.
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Writer and playwright August Strindberg.
With improved education and the freedom brought by secularization, the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further. Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm (17th century), who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren (18th century), the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman (late 18th century), the first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg (late 19th century), a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame. The early 20th century continued to produce notable authors, such as Selma Lagerlöf, (Nobel laureate 1909), Verner von Heidenstam (Nobel laureate 1916) and Pär Lagerkvist (Nobel laureate 1951).

In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationaly, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou. The Swedish writer to have made the most lasting impression on world literature is the children's book writer Astrid Lindgren, and her books about Pippi Longstocking, Emil, and others. In 2008, the second best-selling fiction author in the world was Stieg Larsson, whose Millennium series of crime novels is being published posthumously to critical acclaim. 147 Larsson drew heavily on the work of Lindgren by basing his central character, Lisbeth Salander, on Longstocking. 148

Holidays
References: Public holidays in Sweden
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Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden.
Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays, Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition. They include Midsummer celebrating the summer solstice; Walpurgis Night ( Valborgsmässoafton ) on 30 April lighting bonfires; and Labour Day or Mayday on 1 May is dedicated to socialist demonstrations. The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia, 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season.

6 June is the National Day of Sweden and, as of 2005, a public holiday. Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. In August many Swedes have kräftskivor (crayfish dinner parties). Martin of Tours Eve is celebrated in Scania in November with Mårten Gås parties, where roast goose and svartsoppa ('black soup', made of goose stock, fruit, spices, spirits and goose blood) are served. The Sami, one of Sweden's indigenous minorities, have their holiday on February 6 and Scania celebrate their Scanian Flag day on the third Sunday in July.

Cuisine
References: Swedish cuisine
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Swedish knäckebröd (crisp bread).
Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway and Finland), was traditionally simple. Fish (particularly herring), meat and potatoes played prominent roles. Spices were sparse. Famous dishes include Swedish meatballs, traditionally served with gravy, boiled potatoes and lingonberry jam; pancakes, lutfisk , and Smörgåsbord, or lavish buffet. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage, and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance. The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Regionally important foods are the surströmming (a fermented fish) in Northern Sweden and eel in Scania in Southern Sweden.
Film
References: Cinema of Sweden
Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years, several successful Swedish Hollywood actors can be mentioned: Ingrid Bergman, Greta Garbo, Max von Sydow, Dolph Lundgren, Lena Olin, Britt Ekland, Maud Adams, Stellan Skarsgård, Peter Stormare, Izabella Scorupco, Pernilla August, Ann-Margret, Anita Ekberg, Alexander Skarsgård, Harriet Andersson, Bibi Andersson, Ingrid Thulin, Malin Åkerman and Gunnar Björnstrand. Amongst several directors who have made internationaly successful films can be mentioned: Ingmar Bergman, Lukas Moodysson, and Lasse Hallström.
Fashion

Interest in fashion is big in Sweden and the country is headquartering famous brands like Hennes & Mauritz (operating as H&M), J. Lindeberg (operating as JL), Acne, Gina Tricot, Lindex, Tiger of Sweden, Odd Molly, Cheap Monday, Dr. Denim, Gant, Resteröds, Nudie Jeans, WESC, WAX, Uniforms for the Dedicated, Filippa K, Nakkna and Fifth Avenue Shoe Repair within its borders. These companies, however, are comprised largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and America, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours.

Sports
References: Sport in Sweden
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Stockholm's Olympiastadion
Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating, much thanks to the heavy government subsidies of sport associations ( föreningsstöd ). The two main spectator sports are football and ice hockey. Second to football, horse sports have the highest number of practitioners, mostly women. Thereafter follow golf, athletics, and the team sports of handball, floorball, basketball and bandy.
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Åre ski resort
The Swedish ice hockey team Tre Kronor is regarded as one of the best in the world. The team has won the World Championships eight times, placing them third in the all-time medal count. Tre Kronor also won Olympic gold medals in 1994 and 2006. In 2006, Tre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win both the Olympic and world championships in the same year. The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in 1958, and third twice, in 1950 and 1994.
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Ullevi is a stadium in Gothenburg. The stadium is also the biggest in Scandinavia.
Athletics has enjoyed a surge in popularity due to several successful athletes in recent years, such as: Carolina Klüft, Stefan Holm, Christian Olsson, Patrik Sjöberg, Johan Wissman, Kajsa Bergqvist.

Sweden is also the seventh most successful country in the Olympic Games, as of 2010.

In schools, on meadows and in parks, the game brännboll, a sport similar to baseball, is commonly played for fun. Other leisure sports are the historical game of kubb, and boules among the older generation.

Sweden hosted the 1912 Summer Olympics and the FIFA World Cup in 1958. Other big sports events held here include 1992 UEFA European Football Championship, FIFA Women's World Cup 1995, and several championships of ice hockey, curling, athletics, skiing, bandy, figure skating and swimming.

International rankings
Rankings
Name - Year - Place - Out of # - Reference
Institute for Economics and Peace 9-Global Peace Index - 2009 - 6th - 144 - 10
CIA World FactbookGDPper capita (PPP) - 2008 - 26th - 229 - 11
CIA World Factbooklife expectancy - 2008 - 10th - 223 - 12
World Economic Forum – Enabling Trade Index ranking - 2008 - 3rd - 118 - 13
Yale University / Columbia UniversityEnvironmental Performance Index - 2008 - 3rd - 149 - 14
The Economist Intelligence Unite-readiness - 2008 - 3rd - 70 - 15
The Economist Intelligence UnitGlobal Peace Index - 2008 - 13th - 140 - 16
United States Patent and Trademark Office's list of patents by country - 2007 - 11th - 172 - 17
Save the Children – Mother's Index Rank - 2007 - 1st - 141 - 18
Save the Children – Women's Index Rank - 2007 - 1st - 141 - 19
Save the Children – Children's Index Rank - 2007 - 4th - 141 - 20
Wall Street Journal / The Heritage FoundationIndex of Economic Freedom - 2007 - 27th - 157 - 21
United NationsHuman Development Index - 2007 - 6th - 177 - 22
World Economic Forum – Global Competitiveness Report 2007–2008 - 2007 - 4th - 131 - 23
World Economic Forum – The Global Gender Gap Report 2007 - 2007 - 1st - 128 - 24
World BankEase of Doing Business Index - 2007 - 14th - 178 - 25
Reporters Without BordersWorldwide Press Freedom Index - 2007 - 5th - 169 - 26
Transparency InternationalCorruption Perceptions Index - 2009 - 3rd - 180 - 27
The Economist Intelligence UnitIndex of Democracy - 2007 - 1st - 167 - 28
Organization for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOfficial Development Assistance by country as a percentage of GNI - 2006 - 1st - 34 - 29
Privacy InternationalPrivacy index (EU and 11 other selected countries) - 2006 - 28th - 36 - 30
New Economics FoundationHappy Planet Index - 2009 - 53rd - 143 - 31
The Economist Intelligence UnitQuality-of-life index - 2005 - 5th - 111 - 32
Save the Children – % seats in the national government held by women - 2004 - 1st (47%) - 141 - 33
World Health Organizationsuicide rates by country
31st - 100 - 34
NationMaster's index of civil and political liberties
13th - 140 - 35
NationMaster's index of asylum seekers (per capita) - 2001 - 4th - 28 - 36
NationMaster's index of economic aid (donor, per capita
5th - 24 - 37
NationMaster's index of total tax wedge (single worker
4th - 29 - 38
NationMaster's index of technological achievement
3rd - 68 - 39
See also
Flag of Sweden.svg - Sweden portal
References: Outline of Sweden
List of Sweden-related topics
References
Footnotes
"Befolkningsstatistik". www.scb.se . http://www.scb.se/Pages/Product____25785.aspx?produktkod=BE0101&displaypressrelease=true&pressreleaseid=257212 .
"Summary of Population Statistics 1960 - 2008". www.scb.se . http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____26041.aspx .
Note that Swedish-speaking Finns or other Swedish-speakers born outside Sweden might self-identify as Swedish despite being born abroad. Moreover, people born within Sweden may not be ethnic Swedes.
ab"Befolkningsstatistik". Statistiska centralbyrån . http://www.scb.se/Pages/Product____25799.aspx .
Human Development Report 2009. The United Nations.
"Språklagen" (in Swedish). Språkförsvaret . 2009-07-01 . http://www.sprakforsvaret.se/sf/fileadmin/PDF/spraklagen_200509.pdf .
"Är svenskan också officiellt språk i Sverige?" (in Swedish). Språkrådet (Language Council of Sweden). 2008-02-01 . http://www.sprakradet.se/servlet/GetDoc?meta_id=2119#item100400 .
Summary of Population Statistics 1960 - 2008 - Statistics Sweden (proportion of foreign background, including foreign-born and Swedish-born with two foreign-born parents)
ab Statistics Sweden. Yearbook of Housing and Building Statistics 2007 . Statistics Sweden, Energy, Rents and Real Estate Statistics Unit, 2007. ISBN 978-91-618-1361-2. Available online in PDF format
"Folkmängd i riket, län och kommuner 31 december 2009 och befolkningsförändringar 2009". Statistics Sweden . http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____287608.aspx .
U.S. State Department Background Notes: Sweden
Hellquist, Elof (1922). Svensk etymologisk ordbok . Stockholm: Gleerups förlag. p. 915.
Goth (people). Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
GOTHIC: an extinct language of Ukraine
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05
Quoted from: Gwyn Jones. A History of the Vikings . Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-280134-1. Page 164.
ab Sawyer, Birgit and Peter Sawyer (1993). Medieval Scandinavia: from Conversion to Reformation, Circa 800–1500 . University of Minnesota Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8166-1739-2, pp. 150–153.
Bagge, Sverre (2005) "The Scandinavian Kingdoms". In The New Cambridge Medieval History . Eds. Rosamond McKitterick et al. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-36289-X, p. 724: "Swedish expansion in Finland led to conflicts with Rus', which were temporarily brought to an end by a peace treaty in 1323, dividing the Karelian peninsula and the northern areas between the two countries."
Franklin D. Scott, Sweden: The Nation's History (University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, 1977) p. 58.
Träldom. Nordisk familjebok / Uggleupplagan. 30. Tromsdalstind – Urakami /159–160, 1920. (In Swedish
Scott, p. 55.
Scott, pp. 55-56.
Scott, pp. 56-57.
Scott, p. 121.
Scott, p. 132.
Robert S. Hoyt & Stanley Chodorow, Europe in the Middle Ages (Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, Inc.: New York, 1976) p. 628.
John B. Wolfe, The Emergence of European Civilization (Harper & Row Pub.: New York, 1962) pp. 50-51.
Scott, p. 52.
Scott
Scott, pp. 156-157.
"Population". History Learningsite . http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/population_thirty_years_war.htm .
However, Sweden's largest territorial extent lasted from 1319 to 1343 with Magnus Eriksson ruling all of the traditional lands of Sweden and Norway.
"Gustav I Vasa – Britannica Concise" (biography), Britannica Concise , 2007, webpage: EBConcise-Gustav-I-Vasa.
Battle of Kircholm 1605
Finland and the Swedish Empire. Source: U.S. Library of Congress
Agricultural Yields and Years of Famine - Sweden. Hans Högman.
" Finding the family in medieval and early modern Scotland ". Elizabeth Ewan, Janay Nugent (2008). Ashgate Publishing. p.153. ISBN 0754660494
Losses statistics at Militaria. (Swedish
Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples . University of Minnesota Press. 1998. p. 1220. ISBN0-8020-2938-8.
ab Einhorn, Eric and John Logue (1989). Modern Welfare States: Politics and Policies in Social Democratic Scandinavia . Praeger Publishers, p.9: "Though Denmark, where industrialization had begun in the 1850s, was reasonably prosperous by the end of the nineteenth century, both Sweden and Norway were terribly poor. Only the safety valve of mass emigration to America prevented famine and rebellion. At the peak of emigration in the 1880s, over 1% of the total population of both countries emigrated annually."
Koblik, Steven (1975). Sweden's Development from Poverty to Affluence 1750–1970 , University of Minnesota Press, p.8–9, "In economic and social terms the eighteenth century was more a transitional than a revolutionary period. Sweden was, in light of contemporary Western European standards, a relatively poor but stable country. [...] It has been estimated that 75–80% of the population was involved in agricultural pursuits during the late eighteenth century. One hundred years later, the corresponding figure was still 72%."
Einhorn, Eric and John Logue (1989), p.8.
Ulf Beijbom, "European emigration", The House of Emigrants, Växjö, Sweden.
ab Koblik, pp. 9–10.
Sweden: Social and economic conditions (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica . Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Koblik, p. 11: "The agrarian revolution in Sweden is of fundamental importance for Sweden's modern development. Throughout Swedish history the countryside has taken an unusually important role in comparison with other European states."
Koblik, p. 90. "It is usually suggested that between 1870 and 1914 Sweden emerged from its primarily agrarian economic system into a modern industrial economy."
abc Koblik, pp. 303–313.
Nordstrom, p. 315: "Sweden's government attempted to maintain at least a semblance of neutrality while it bent to the demands of the prevailing side in the struggle. Although effective in preserving the country's sovereignty, this approach generated criticism at home from many who believed the threat to Sweden was less serious than the government claimed, problems with the warring powers, ill feelings among its neighbours, and frequent criticism in the postwar period."
abcde Nordstrom, pp. 313–319.
Zubicky, Sioma (1997) (in Swedish). Med förintelsen i bagaget . Stockholm: Bonnier Carlsen. p. 122. ISBN91-638-3436-7.
ab Nordstrom, pp. 335–339.
abc Globalization and Taxation: Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State . By Sven Steinmo.
Nordstrom, p. 344: "During the last twenty-five years of the century a host of problems plagued the economies of Norden and the West. Although many were present before, the 1973 and 1980 global oil crises acted as catalysts in bringing them to the fore."
Krantz, Olle and Lennart Schön. 2007. Swedish Historical National Accounts, 1800–2000. Lund: Almqvist and Wiksell International.
Englund, P. 1990. "Financial deregulation in Sweden." European Economic Review 34 (2–3): 385–393. Korpi TBD. Meidner, R. 1997. "The Swedish model in an era of mass unemployment." Economic and Industrial Democracy 18 (1): 87–97. Olsen, Gregg M. 1999. "Half empty or half full? The Swedish welfare state in transition." Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology, 36 (2): 241–268.
The Local. "New Swedish weapon in Iraq" . http://www.thelocal.se/article.php?ID=3013&date=20060207 .
"BBC Climate and the Gulf Stream" . http://www.bbc.co.uk/climate/impact/gulf_stream.shtml .
"The Gulf Stream Myth" . http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/div/ocp/gs/ .
"Number of hours with sunshine (map)". Swedish Meteorological Institute . http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7608&a=21429&l=sv .
"Normal solskenstid för ett år - SMHI" (in (Swedish) ). Smhi.se . http://www.smhi.se/klimatdata/meteorologi/stralning/1.3052 .
"July average high temperature map". Swedish Meteorological Institute . http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7628&a=21614&l=sv .
"July average low temperature map". Swedish Meteorological Institute . http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7628&a=21654&l=sv .
"January daily average temperature map". Swedish Meteorological Institute . http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7628&a=21572&l=sv .
"Date of first autumn frost (map)". Swedish Meteorological Institute . http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7628&a=21704&l=sv .
"Date of last spring frost (map)". Swedish Meteorological Institute . http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7628&a=21706&l=sv .
"Low temperature extremes". Swedish Meteorological Institute . http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7522&a=20978&l=sv .
"High temperature extremes". Swedish Meteorological Institute . http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7522&a=20974&l=sv .
"Annual precipitation map". Swedish Meteorological Institute . http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=7618&a=21516&l=sv .
"Sweden's climate". Swedish Meteorological Institute . http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=5441 . (in Swedish, see also the Google-translated version
weather. "Local, National, and International Weather - Forecasts, Radar Maps, Video, and News". Msn.com . http://www.msn.com/weather .
"Sweden in Brief/A Political Society". Sweden.se . http://www.sweden.se/templates/cs/CommonPage____2713.aspx .
"Economist Intelligence Unit democracy index 2006" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 2007 . http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/DEMOCRACY_TABLE_2007_v3.pdf .
Hur och när det svenska riket uppstod vet vi inte. Först under 1100-talet börjar skriftliga dokument produceras i Sverige i någon större omfattning [...] - How and when the Swedish kingdom appeared is not known. It is not until the 12th century that written document begin to be produced in Sweden in any larger extent [...]
Kungl. Maj:ts kungörelse med anledning av konung Gustaf VI Adolfs frånfälle. SFS 1973:702. Justitiedepartementet L6, 19 September 1973.
ab The Swedish Parliament. The history of the Riksdag.
The Official Website of the Swedish Election Authority. "Val till riksdagen" . http://www.val.se/val/val2006/slutlig/R/rike/roster.html .
Sören Holmberg (1999). Pippa Norris. ed. Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Government . Oxford University Press. pp. 103–123. ISBN0198295685.
European Commission Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs And Equal Opportunities, Report On The Equality Between Men And Women ,http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/publications/2006/keaj06001_en.pdf February 2006
"Nordic countries rank highest in gender equality". Norden.org . http://www.norden.org/webb/news/news.asp?lang=6&id=6605 .
Nordstrom p. 302: "In fact, the plans were mostly a ruse to establish control of the crucial Norwegian port of Narvik and the iron mines of northern Sweden, which were vitally important to the German war efforts."
Nordstrom, p 336: "As a corollary, a security policy based on strong national defences designed to discourage, but not prevent, attack was pursued. For the next several decades, the Swedish poured an annual average of about 5% of GDP into making their defenses credible."
National Geographical News, web article, Cold War Spy Plane Found in Baltic Sea 1 10 November 2003.
"Värnplikt [Conscription"] . http://www.forsvarsmakten.se/sv/Rekrytering/Varnplikt/ .
"Allmänna värnplikten skrotas [General conscription scrapped" . http://svt.se/2.22620/1.1595556/allmanna_varnplikten_skrotas?lid=puff_1597044&lpos=extra_0 .
Swedish Ministry of Defence (2008-01-08). "The EU Battlegroup Concept and the Nordic Battlegroup". Government Offices of Sweden . http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/9133/a/82276 .
20 largest companies in Sweden
abcdefgEconomic survey of Sweden 2007
Pension Reform in Sweden: Lessons for American Policymakers by Goran Normann, Ph.D. and Daniel J. Mitchell, Ph.D. June 29, 2000.
ab OECD Economic Surveys: Sweden - Volume 2005 Issue 9 by OECD Publishing
"World Economic Forum - Global Competitiveness Report". Weforum.org. 2009-11-25 . http://www.weforum.org/en/initiatives/gcp/Global%20Competitiveness%20Report/index.htm .
Sweden most creative country in Europe & top talent hotspot, Invest in Sweden Agency, 25 June 2005.
Kraftläget i Sverige, Vattensituationen
"Sweden: ban gasoline fossil fuel-driven vehicles by 2025". Trollhattansaab.net . http://www.trollhattansaab.net/archives/2008/11/sweden-ban-gasoline-driven-vehicles-by-2025.html .
"Nuclear Power in Sweden". World Nuclear Association. September 2009 . http://world-nuclear.org/info/inf42.html .
Vidal, John. Sweden plans to be world's first oil-free economy. The Guardian, 2/8/06.
[Kicking Away The Ladder, p. 39 - 42], Ha-Joon Chang
abEU versus USA, Fredrik Bergström & Robert Gidehag
Sweden's GDP per capitaEkonomifakta
2, Richard Wilkinson & Kate Pickett
Sweden's balancing lessons for Europe, McKinsey IMG institute 2006
Moderate revolution, The Economist September 13th 2007
Lindberg, Henrik. "The Role of Economists in Liberalizing Swedish Agriculture" (May 2007). 3
Westerlund, Kenneth (2008-03-11). "Danmark har högsta skattetrycket". DN . http://www.dn.se/DNet/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=3130&a=750879 .
Unemployment rate in December 2008 (SCB, Statistics Sweden, central government authority for official statistics)
PISA results for Sweden
The Swedish model, The Economist
http://www.studyinsweden.se/Home/News-archive/2010/Tuition-fees-from-2011/
Statistics Sweden. 4 Befolkningsstatistik i sammandrag 1960-2007.
Statistics Sweden. 5 Befolkningsutveckling; födda, döda, in- och utvandring, gifta, skilda 1749 - 2007
Statistics Sweden. Utrikes födda efter region, ålder i tioårsklasser och kön. År 2001-2007 .6.
Migrationsverket.7. Many IT specialists and engineers among the new labour immigrants , 6 February 2009.
"U.S. Census". U.S. Census Bureau . http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-_lang=en&-_caller=geoselect&-format= .
Statistics Sweden.Preliminary Population Statistics, by month, 2004–2006. Population statistics , 1 January 2007.
Svenskan blir inte officiellt språk, Sveriges Television , 2005-12-07.
(Swedish) Svenska Kyrkan Statistiek pagina Medlemmar 1972-2008 excel file
Church of Sweden, Members 1972–2006, Excel document in Swedish
Statistics about free churches and immigration churches from Swedish Wikipedia - in Swedish
Zuckerman pitzer.edu
Sydsvenskan (a Swedish newspaper) - in Swedish
Åke Sander (2004), “Muslims in Sweden”, in Muhammad Anwar, Jochen Blaschke and Åke Sander, State Policies Towards Muslim Minorities: Sweden, Great Britain and Germany, Berlin : Parabolis; p.218
"Embassy of Sweden New Delhi - Science & Technology". Swedenabroad.se . http://www.swedenabroad.se/Page____50008.aspx .
"Doing Business Abroad - Innovation, Science and Technology". Infoexport.gc.ca . http://www.infoexport.gc.ca/science/nordics_sweden_report-en.htm .
Patents By Country, State, and Year - All Patent Types (December 2007)8
"The Swedish Myths: True, False, or Somewhere In Between?". Sweden.se . http://www.sweden.se/templates/cs/Article____12355.aspx .
"Sweden passes new gay marriage law". The Local. 2009-04-02 . http://www.thelocal.se/18608/20090402/ .
Durant, Colin (2003). Choral Conducting: philosophy and practice , Routledge, pp. 46–47. ISBN 0-415-94356-6: "Sweden has a strong and enviable choral singing tradition. [..] All those interviewed placed great emphasis on the social identification through singing and also referred to the importance of Swedish folk song in the maintenance of the choral singing tradition and national identity."
Sweden at CMJ 09 - Turning the Market Around: Creative Dialogues for Stepping Up the Game Consulate General of Sweden New York.
"Consulate General of Sweden Los Angeles - Export Music Sweden at MuseExpo". Swedenabroad.com. Archived from the original on 2010-05-05 . http://web.archive.org/web/20080615001724/http://www.swedenabroad.com/Page____59218.aspx .
Bestselling fiction authors in the world for 2008, 15 January 2009, www.abebooks.com.
Poisoned Legacy Left By The King Of Thrillers, www.buzzle.com.
Bagge, Sverre (2005). "The Scandinavian Kingdoms". In The New Cambridge Medieval History . Eds. Rosamond McKitterick et al. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-36289-X.
"Radical principles and the legal institution of marriage: domestic relations law and social democracy in Sweden—BRADLEY 4 (2): 154—International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family" . http://lawfam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/4/2/154 .
Sweden entry at The World Factbook
Council for Official Statistics. "Preliminär befolkningsstatistik 2006"Statistics Sweden.
Durant, Colin (2003). Choral Conducting: philosophy and practice , Routledge, pp. 46–47. ISBN 0-415-94356-6.
Einhorn, Eric and John Logue (1989). Modern Welfare States: Politics and Policies in Social Democratic Scandinavia . Praeger Publishers, 1989. ISBN 0-275-93188-9.
Invest in Sweden Agency (ISA) (2005). Sweden most creative country in Europe and top talent hotspot. Press release, 25 June 2005.
Koblik, Steven (1975). Sweden's Development from Poverty to Affluence 1750–1970 . University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0757-5.
Magocsi, Paul Robert (1998). Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples . University of Minnesota Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8020-2938-8.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sweden Agenda 21 – Natural Resource Aspects - Sweden. 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997.
Nordstrom, Byron J. (2000). Scandinavia since 1500 . University of Minnesota Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8166-2098-9.
Sawyer, Birgit and Peter Sawyer (1993). Medieval Scandinavia: from Conversion to Reformation, Circa 800–1500 . University of Minnesota Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8166-1739-2.
Ståhl, Solveig. (1999). "English spoken – fast ibland hellre än bra". LUM, Lunds universitet med delar, 7:1999, 3 September 1999. In Swedish.
Statistics Sweden. 2006 census.
Statistics Sweden. Preliminary Population Statistics, by month, 2004–2006. Population statistics , 1 January 2007.
Statistics Sweden. Yearbook of Housing and Building Statistics 2007 . Statistics Sweden, Energy, Rents and Real Estate Statistics Unit, 2007. ISBN 978-91-618-1361-2. Available online in pdf format.
"Sweden". In The Columbia Encyclopedia , Sixth Edition, 2001–05.
Sweden. In Encyclopædia Britannica , 1911.
Sweden: Social and economic conditions (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica . Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Swedish National Debt Office
The Swedish Parliament: Laws
Uddhammar, Emil (1993). Partierna och den stora staten: en analys av statsteorier och svensk politik under 1900-talet . Stockholm, City University Press.
United States Department of StateSweden
World History Database – Sweden
Zuckerman, Phil (2007), Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns PDF i Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-60367-6
Find more about Sweden on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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Government
The Official Gateway to Sweden
The Swedish Government – Official site
The Swedish Parliament – Official site
The Swedish Royal Court – Official website of the Swedish Royal House
Chief of State and Cabinet Members
Statistiska Centralbyrån Statistics Sweden (governmental
Invest in Sweden Agency government agency
General information
Sweden entry at The World Factbook
Sweden entry at Encyclopædia Britannica
Sweden from UCB Libraries GovPubs
Sweden at the Open Directory Project
Wikimedia Atlas of Sweden
News media
Radio Sweden (English) – Public service
The Local - Sweden's news in English – Independent English language news site
Travel
VisitSweden – Official travel and tourism website for Sweden
Sweden travel guide from Wikitravel
Other
Study in Sweden – Official guide to studying in Sweden
Swedish Trade Council
Sweden – Economic Growth and Structural Change, 1800–2000—EH.Net Encyclopedia
vifanord – a digital library that provides scientific information on the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as the Baltic region as a whole
Articles Related to Sweden
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History -
Prehistoric Sweden
Early Sweden
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Swedish Empire
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Union between Sweden and Norway
Modernization
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Sweden during World War II
Post-war
Recent History
Coat of arms of Sweden
Politics and
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Constitution
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Geography -
Lands
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Symbols -
Coat of arms - Flag
National anthem
References from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweden
Categories: Sweden
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Scandinavia
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Year of establishment unknown
This article is about the country. For other uses, see Sweden.

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