Russia

- Russia

Russia Phones - Find Phones in Russia
Russia Phones - Russia Find Phones in Russia. Mobile Phones in Russia.

Phones in Russia

Russia - Europe Phones

Russia

Russia - Europe Phones
Russia Russia - Europe Phones - Russia News
How to dial to Russia? - Find Mobile Phones in Russia - Mobile Codes
How to call to Russia? - Dialling Codes of Russia - Dial Code of Russia.
Russia Codes Area Codes in Russia? City Codes of Russia. - Prefix of Russia. - How to dial to the cities in Russia? List of City Dial Codes of Russia. Russia Phone Services. Find phones in the cities in Russia.
Phone in Russia - Russia Phone Numbers Russia Reverse Lookup. - Where can I find people in Russia? Use the white pages section to find phone numbers, address, names. Locate people in Russia.
Search in Russia. Search phone numbers in Russia . Find telephone numbers in the phone guides of Russia.
Yellow pages in Russia Yellow pages of Russia. Locate in Russia Business Directory. - Where to search business in Russia? The list of yellow pages in Russia can be used to find more information to locate for business and other professional services. Phone Numbers, Address and more. List with telephone numbers search services to find phone information about people or business.
White pages in Russia White pages of Russia. People Find. Where to find people in Russia? How can I find people in Russia? - How can I find people in Russia? Use the list of telephones services to search phone numbers in Russia. : Where to search phones in Russia? - Use the list of mobile services to locate the phone operator and special dial codes for Russia.
Maps of Russia
Russia :. .: Russia - Find Phone Numbers and People in Europe - Where To Search Mobile Phones and Area Codes for the Cities of Europe. Directory with business yellow pages and white pages. How can I find Telephone Numbers in guides with free information for international calls. Cell Phone Services and calling cards

Russia

Russian Federation Российская Федерация
Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
/ - /
Flag - Coat of arms
Anthem: Государственный гимн Российской Федерации (Russian)
Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii (transliteration)
State Anthem of the Russian Federation
/
Capital
(and largest city) - Moscow
55°45′N 37°37′E  /  55.75°N 37.617°E  / 55.75; 37.617
Official language(s) : Russian official throughout the country; 27 others co-official in various regions
Ethnic groups - Russians 79.8%, Tatars 3.8%, Ukrainians 2%, Bashkirs 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, Chechen 0.9%, Armenians 0.8%, other – 10.4%
Demonym : Russian
Government : Federalsemi-presidentialrepublic
President - Dmitry Medvedev
Prime Minister - Vladimir Putin (Independent, but leader of UR
Chairman of the Federation Council - Sergey Mironov (FR
Chairman of the State Duma - Boris Gryzlov (UR
Legislature : Federal Assembly
Upper House - Federation Council
Lower House - State Duma
Formation
Rurik Dynasty - 862
Kievan Rus' - 882
Vladimir-Suzdal Rus' - 1169
Grand Duchy of Moscow - 1283
Tsardom of Russia - 1547
Russian Empire - 1721
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic - 7 November 1917
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics - 10 December 1922
Russian Federation - 26 December 1991
Area
Total - 17,075,400 km 2 (1st)
6,592,800 sq mi
Water (%) - 13 1 (including swamps
Population
2010 estimate - 141,927,297 2 (9th
2002 census - 145,166,731 3
Density - 8.3/km 2 (217th)
21.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) - 2009 estimate
Total - $2.109 trillion 4
Per capita - $14,919 4
GDP (nominal) - 2009 estimate
Total - $1.229 trillion 4
Per capita - $8,693 4
HDI (2007) - UP 0.817 (high ) (71st
Currency : Ruble (RUB
Time zone : (UTC+2 to +11 (exc. +4)
Summer (DST) - (UTC+3 to +12 (exc. +5)
Drives on the : right
Internet TLD : .ru, .su, .рф 2
Calling code : +7
1 - The Russian Federation is one of the successors to earlier forms of continuous statehood, starting from the 9 th Century AD when Rurik, a Viking warrior, was chosen as the ruler of Novgorod, a point traditionally taken as the beginning of Russian statehood.
2 - The .рф top-level domain is available for use in the Russian Federation since May 2010 and only accepts domains which use the Cyrillic alphabet 6 (e. g. http://правительство.рф).
Russia (pronounced /ˈrʌʃə/ (/listen) ; Russian: Россия , tr. Rossiya , pronounced rɐˈsʲijə (/listen) ), also officially known as the Russian Federation 7 8 (Russian: Российская Федерация , tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya , pronounced rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈraʦəjə (/listen) ), is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federalsemi-presidentialrepublic, comprising 83 federal subjects. Russia shares borders with the following countries (from northwest to southeast): Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It also has maritime borders with Japan (by the Sea of Okhotsk) and the United States (by the Bering Strait).

At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is by far the largest country in the world, covering more than a ninth of the Earth's land area. Russia is also the ninth most populous nation in the world with 142 million people. 1 It extends across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe, spanning 9 time zones and incorporating a wide range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources, 9 and is considered an energy superpower. 10 11 12 It has the world's largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's fresh water. 13

The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. 14 Founded and ruled by a noble Viking warrior class and their descendants, the first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus', arose in the 9th century and adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988, 15 beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. 15 Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated and the lands were divided into many small feudal states. The most powerful successor state to Kievan Rus' was Moscow, which served as the main force in the Russian reunification process and independence struggle against the Golden Horde. Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America.

Russia established worldwide power and influence from the times of the Russian Empire to being the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionallysocialist state and a recognized superpower, 16 that played a decisive role in the allied victory in World War II. 17 18 19 The Soviet era saw some of the greatest technology achievements of the nation, such as the world's first human spaceflight. The Russian Federation was founded following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, but is recognized as the continuing legal personality of the Soviet state. 20 Russia has the world's 12th largest economy by nominal GDP or the seventh largest by purchasing power parity, with the fifth largest nominal military budget. It is one of the five recognizednuclear weapons states and possesses the world's largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. 21 Russia is a great power and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G8, G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Eurasian Economic Community, the OSCE, and is the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Contents
1 - Etymology
2 - Geography
2.1 - Topography
2.2 - Climate
2.3 - Flora and fauna
3 - History
3.1 - Early periods
3.2 - Kievan Rus'
3.3 - Grand Duchy of Moscow
3.4 - Tsardom of Russia
3.5 - Imperial Russia
3.6 - Soviet Russia
3.7 - Russian Federation
4 - Government and politics
4.1 - Human rights
4.2 - Foreign relations
4.3 - Military
4.4 - Subdivisions
5 - Demographics
5.1 - Language
5.2 - Religion
5.3 - Health
5.4 - Education
6 - Economy
6.1 - Agriculture
6.2 - Energy
6.3 - Science and technology
6.4 - Transportation
7 - Culture
7.1 - Folk culture and cuisine
7.2 - Architecture
7.3 - Visual arts
7.4 - Classical music and ballet
7.5 - Literature and philosophy
7.6 - Cinema, animation and media
7.7 - Modern culture
7.8 - Sports
7.9 - National holidays and symbols
7.10 - Tourism
8 - International rankings
9 - See also
10 - References
11
Etymology
References: Rus (name)
The country´s original name was Русь (Rus'), a medieval state populated mostly by the Early East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Руськая Земля" (ruskaya zemlya) which could be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". The difference between the two terms would be like the difference between, for example, "Germany" and "German Land" or "Land of Germans". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.

An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия (Rossiya), comes from the Greek version of Rus', spelled Ρωσία [rosˈia], which was the denomination of Kievan Rus in the Byzantine Empire.

Geography
Referencess: Geography of Russia and Russian explorers
Russia is the largest country in the world; its total area is 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi). The country contains 23 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 22 40 UNESCO Biosphere reserves, 23 40 National Parks and 101 nature reserves. Russia has a wide natural resource base, including major deposits of timber, petroleum, natural gas, coal, ores and other mineral resources.

Topography

/
Topography of Russia.
The two widest separated points in Russia are about 8,000 km (4,971 mi) apart along a geodesic line. These points are: the boundary with Poland on a 60 km (37 mi) long spit of land separating the Gulf of Gdańsk from the Vistula Lagoon; and the farthest southeast of the Kuril Islands, a few miles off Hokkaidō Island, Japan. The points which are furthest separated in longitude are 6,600 km (4,101 mi) apart along a geodesic. These points are: in the west, the same spit; in the east, the Big Diomede Island (Ostrov Ratmanova). The Russian Federation spans 9 time zones. With access to three of the world's oceans — the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific — Russian fishing fleets are a major contributor to the world's fish supply. 24 The Caspian is the source of what is considered one of the finest caviar in the world.

/
Central Russian Upland near Zaraysk, Moscow Oblast.
/
Mount Elbrus, the highest point of the Caucasus, Russia and Europe.
/
The plains of Western Siberia, Vasyugan River, Tomsk Oblast.
Most of Russia consists of vast stretches of plains that are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast. Russia possesses 10% of the world's arable land. 25 Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus (containing Mount Elbrus, which at 5,642 m (18,510 ft) is the highest point in both Russia and Europe) and the Altai (containing Mount Belukha, which at the 4,506 m (14,783 ft) is the highest point of Asian Russia); and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range or the volcanoes on Kamchatka. The Ural Mountains, rich in mineral resources, form a north-south range that divides Europe and Asia. Russia has an extensive coastline of over 37,000 km (22,991 mi) along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, as well as along the Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black and Caspian seas. 26

The Barents Sea, White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Sea of Japan are linked to Russia via the Arctic and Pacific oceans. Russia's major islands and archipelagos include: Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin. The Diomede Islands (one controlled by Russia, the other by the United States) are just 3 km (1.9 mi) apart, and Kunashir Island is about 20 km (12.4 mi) from Hokkaidō.

Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water providing it with one of the world's largest surface water resources. The largest and most prominent of Russia's bodies of fresh water is Lake Baikal, the world's deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious freshwater lake. 27 Lake Baikal alone contains over one fifth of the world's fresh surface water. 28 Other major lakes include Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega, two of the largest lakes in Europe. Russia is second only to Brazil in volume of total renewable water resources. Of the country's 100,000 rivers, 29 the Volga is the most famous, not only because it is the longest river in Europe, but also because of its major role in Russian history. 26

/
The Brown bear is a symbol of Russia.
/
Taiga forest in winter, Arkhangelsk Oblast.
/
The Amur Tiger's natural habitat is confined to the Russian Far East.
/
A birch forest in Siberia, Novosibirsk Oblast. Birch is a national tree of Russia.

Climate

References: Climate of Russia
The climate of the Russian Federation formed under the influence of several determining factors. The enormous size of the country and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental and subarctic climate, which is prevalent in European and Asian Russia except for the tundra and the extreme southeast. Mountains in the south obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean, while the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences. 30

Throughout much of the territory there are only two distinct seasons — winter and summer; spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low temperatures and extremely high. 30 The coldest month is January (February on the shores of the sea), the warmest usually is July. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia. A small part of Black Sea coast around Sochi has a subtropical climate. 31 The continental interiors are the driest areas.

Flora and fauna

Referencess: List of ecoregions in Russia, List of mammals of Russia, and List of birds of Russia
From north to south the East European Plain, also known as Russian Plain, is clad sequentially in Arctic tundra , coniferous forest ( taiga ), mixed and broad-leaf forests, grassland ( steppe ), and semi-desert (fringing the Caspian Sea), as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Siberia supports a similar sequence but largely is taiga. Russia has the world's largest forest reserves, 13 known as "the lungs of Europe" , 32 second only to the Amazon Rainforest in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs.

There are 266 mammal species and 780 bird species in Russia. A total of 415 animal species have been included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation as of 1997 33 and are now protected.

History
References: History of Russia

Early periods

Further information: Eurasian nomads, Scythia, Bosporan Kingdom, Khazaria, and East Slavs
/
Kurgan hypothesis: South Russia as the urheimat of Indo-European peoples.
/
An approximate map of the cultures in European Russia at the arrival of the Varangians.
/
Kievan Rus' in the 11th century.
/
Alexander Nevsky by Pavel Korin on the 1967 Soviet postage stamp.
One of the first modern human bones of 35,000 years old were found in Kostenki on the Don River banks. In prehistoric times, the vast steppes of Southern Russia were home to tribes of nomadic pastoralists. In classical antiquity, the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia. 34

Remnants of these steppe civilizations were discovered in such places as Ipatovo, 34 Sintashta, 35 Arkaim, 36 and Pazyryk, 37 which bear the earliest known traces of mounted warfare, a key feature in nomadic way of life. In the latter part of the 8th century BCE, Greek traders brought classical civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria. 38

Between the third and sixth centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies, 39 was overwhelmed by successive waves of nomadic invasions, 40 led by warlike tribes, such as the Huns and Turkic Avars. A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas until the 8th century. 41

The ancestors of modern Russians are the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pinsk Marshes. 42 The Early East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia in two waves: one moving from Kiev toward present-day Suzdal and Murom and another from Polotsk toward Novgorod and Rostov. 43 From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia 43 and slowly but peacefully assimilated the native Finno-Ugric tribes, including the Merya, 44 the Muromians, 45 and the Meshchera. 46

Kievan Rus'

References: Kievan Rus'
The 9th century saw the establishment of Kievan Rus', a predecessor state to Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Scandinavian Norsemen, called "Vikings" in Western Europe and "Varangians" in the East, 47 combined piracy and trade in their roamings over much of Europe. In the mid-9th century, they ventured along the waterways extending from the eastern Baltic to the Blackand Caspian Seas. 48

According to the earliest Russian chronicle, a Varangian from Rus' people, named Rurik, was elected ruler of Novgorod in 862. His successor Oleg the Prophet moved south and conquered Kiev in 882, 49 which had been previously dominated by the Khazars; 50 so the state of Kievan Rus' started. Oleg, Rurik's son Igor and Igor's son Svyatoslav subsequently subdued all East Slavic tribes to Kievan rule, destroyed the Khazar khaganate and launched several military expeditions to Byzantium.

/
The Baptism of Kievans , a painting by Klavdiy Lebedev.
In the 10th to 11th centuries Kievan Rus' became one of the largest and most prosperous states in Europe. 51 The reigns of Vladimir the Great (980–1015) and his son Yaroslav I the Wise (1019–1054) constitute the Golden Age of Kiev, which saw the acceptance ofOrthodox Christianity from Byzantium and the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda .

In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchaks and the Pechenegs, caused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye. 52 The age of feudalism and decentralization had come, marked by constant in-fighting between members of the princely family that ruled Kievan Rus' collectively. Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod in the north-west and Galicia-Volhynia in the south-west.

Ultimately Kievan Rus' disintegrated, with the final blow being the Mongol invasion of 1237–1240, 53 that resulted in the destruction of Kiev 54 and the death of about half the population of Rus'. 55 The invaders, later known as Tatars, formed the state of the Golden Horde, which pillaged the Russian principalities and ruled the southern and central expanses of Russia for over three centuries, impeding the country's economic and social development. 56

Galicia-Volhynia was eventually assimilated by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and the independent Novgorod Republic, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation. 15 The Novgorod Republic together with Pskov retained some degree of autonomy during the time of the Mongol yoke and were largely spared the atrocities that affected the rest of the country. Led by Alexander Nevsky, Novgorodians repelled the invading Swedes in the Battle of the Neva in 1240, as well as the Germanic crusaders in the Battle of the Ice in 1242, breaking their attempts to colonize the Northern Rus'.

Grand Duchy of Moscow

References: Grand Duchy of Moscow
/
Sergius of Radonezh blessing Dmitri Donskoi in Troitse-Sergieva Lavra, before the Battle of Kulikovo. A painting by Ernest Lissner.
/
The Dormition Cathedral in Moscow Kremlin. Built in the 15th century by an Italian architect, it became the site of coronation of Russian Tsars and Emperors.
The most powerful successor state to Kievan Rus' was the Grand Duchy of Moscow ("Moscovy" in the Western chronicles), initially a part of Vladimir-Suzdal. While still under the domain of the Mongol-Tatars and with their connivance, Moscow began to assert its influence in Western Russia in the early 14th century.

Those were hard times, with frequent Mongol-Tatar raids and agriculture suffering from the beginning of the Little Ice Age. Like in the rest of Europe, plagues hit Russia somewhere once every five or six years from 1350 to 1490. However, due to the lower population density and better hygiene (widespread practicing of banya), 57 the population loss caused by plagues wasn't so severe as in the Western Europe, and the pre-Plague populations seem to have been reached in Russia as early as 1500. 58

Assisted by the Russian Orthodox Church and Saint Sergius of Radonezh's spiritual revival, under the leadership of Prince Dmitri Donskoy of Moscow, the united army of Russian principalities inflicted a milestone defeat on the Mongol-Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo (1380). Moscow gradually absorbed the surrounding principalities, including eventually the strong rivals, such as Tver and Novgorod, and thus became the main leading force in the process of Russia's reunification and expansion.

Ivan III ( Ivan the Great ) finally threw off the control of the Golden Horde, consolidated the whole of Central and Northern Rus' under Moscow's dominion, and was the first to take the title "grand duke of all the Russias". 59 After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Moscow claimed succession to the legacy of the Eastern Roman Empire. Ivan III married Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of the last Byzantine emperorConstantine XI, and made the Byzantine double-headed eagle his own, and eventually Russian, coat-of-arms.

Tsardom of Russia

References: Tsardom of Russia
/
Portrait of Ivan IV by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1897
/
Monument to Minin and Pozharsky (1804–1816) in front of Saint Basil's Cathedral
In development of the Third Rome ideas, the Grand Duke Ivan IV ( Ivan the Terrible ) was officially crowned the first Tsar ("Caesar") of Russia in 1547. The Tsar promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550), established the first Russian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor) and introduced local self-management into the rural regions. 60 61

During his long reign, Ivan IV nearly doubled the already large Russian territory by annexing the three Tatar khanates (parts of disintegrated Golden Horde): Kazan and Astrakhan along the Volga River, and Sibirean Khanate in South Western Siberia. Thus by the end of the 16th century Russia was transformed into a multiethnic, multiconfessional and transcontinental state.

In contrast to these great achievements in the East, Ivan IV's policy in the West brought quite disastrous results. The Russian state was weakened by the long and unsuccessful Livonian War against the coalition of Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden for access to the Baltic coast and sea trade. 62 At the same time Tatars of the Crimean Khanate, the only remaining successor to the Golden Horde, continued to invade Southern Russia in a series of slave raids, 63 and were even able to burn down Moscow in 1571. 64

The death of Ivan's sons marked the end of the ancient Rurikid Dynasty in 1598, and in combination with the famine of 1601–1603 65 led to the civil war, the rule of pretenders and foreign intervention during the Time of Troubles in the early 1600s. 66 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied parts of Russia, including Moscow. In 1612 the Poles were forced to retreat by the Russian volunteer corps, led by two national heroes, merchant Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky. A new dynasty, the Romanovs, acceded the throne in 1613 by the decision of Zemsky Sobor, and Russia started its gradual recovery from the crisis.

/
Yermak's Conquest of Siberia by Vasily Surikov.
Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks. Cossacks were warriors organized into military communities, resembling pirates and pioneers of the New World. In 1648, the peasants of Ukraine joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks in rebellion against Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Khmelnytsky Uprising, because of the social and religious oppression they suffered under Polish rule. In 1654 the Ukrainian leader, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, offered to place Ukraine under the protection of the Russian Tsar, Aleksey I. Aleksey's acceptance of this offer led to a protracted war between Poland and Russia. Finally, Ukraine was split along the river Dnieper, leaving the western part (or Right-bank Ukraine) under Polish rule and eastern part (Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev) under Russian. Soon after that, in 1670–71 the Don Cossacks led by Stenka Razin initiated a major Cossack and peasant uprising in the Volga region, but the Tsar's troops were successful in defeating the rebels.

In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of the huge territories of Siberia was led mostly by Cossacks hunting for valuable furs and ivory. Russian explorers pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian river routes, and by the mid-17th century there were Russian settlements in the Eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsula, along the Amur River, and on the Pacific coast. In 1648 the Bering Strait between Asia and North America was passed for the first time by the expedition of Fedot Popov and Semyon Dezhnev.

Imperial Russia

References: Russian Empire
/
Peter the Great officially proclaimed the existence of the Russian Empire in 1721. A portrait by Hippolyte Delaroche.
/
Cathrine II the Great ruled Russia during the Age of Enlightenment. A portrait by Dmitry Levitzky.
Under Peter I ( Peter the Great ), Russia was proclaimed an Empire in 1721 and became recognized as a world power. Ruling from 1682 to 1725, Peter defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War, forcing it to cede West Karelia and Ingria (two regions lost by Russia in the Time of Troubles), 67 as well as Estland and Livland, securing Russia's access to the sea and sea trade. 68 On the Baltic Sea Peter founded a new capital called Saint Petersburg, later known as Russia's Window to Europe . Peter's reforms brought considerable Western European cultural influences to Russia.

The reign of Peter I's daughter Elisabeth in 1741–1762 saw Russia's participation in the Seven Years War (1756–1763), sometimes called the first actual World War. During this conflict Russia was able to annex Eastern Prussia for a while, and even take Berlin once, however upon Elisabeth's death all these conquests were returned to Kingdom of Prussia by pro-Prussian Peter III of Russia.

Catherine II ( Catherine the Great ), who ruled from 1762 to 1796, continued the efforts to establish Russia as one of the Great Powers of Europe. She extended Russian political control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and incorporated most of the Commonwealth territories into Russia during the Partitions of Poland, pushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe.

In the south, after successful Russo-Turkish Wars against the Ottoman Empire, Cathrine advanced Russia's boundary to the Black Sea, defeating the Crimean khanate. As a result of victories over the Ottomans, by the early 19th century Russia also had made significant territorial gains in Transcaucasia. This continued with Alexander I's (1801–1825) wresting of Finland from the weakened kingdom of Sweden in 1809 and of Bessarabia from the Ottomans in 1812.

At the same time, in the second half of the 18th century and in the first half of the 19th, Russians colonised Alaska and even founded some settlements in California, like Fort Ross. In 1803–1806 the first Russian circumnavigation was made, followed during the 19th century by the other notable Russian sea exploration voyages. In 1820 the Russian expedition discovered the Antarctic continent.

/
March of Suvorov through the Alps by Vasily Surikov. A scene from GeneralissimoSuvorov's Italian and Swiss expedition.
/
Napoleon's withdrawal from Russia , a painting by Adolph Northen.
In several coalition alliances with various European countries, Russia fought against Napoleon's France. Napoleon's invasion of Russia at the height of his power in 1812 failed miserably as the obstinate Russian resistance in combination with the bitterly cold Russian winter dealt him a disastrous defeat, in which more than 95% of his invading force perished. 69 Led by Mikhail Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly, the Russian army ousted Napoleon from the country and drove through Europe as a part of the Sixth Coalition, finally entering Paris.

Tsar Alexander I headed Russia's delegation at the Congress of Vienna that defined the map of post-Napoleonic Europe. The officers of the Napoleonic Wars brought ideas of liberalism back to Russia with them and even attempted to curtail the tsar's powers during the abortive Decembrist revolt of 1825, which was followed by several decades of political repression.

The prevalence of serfdom and the conservative policies of Nicolas I (1825–1855) impeded the development of Russia in the mid-nineteenth century, when a zenith period of Russia's power and influence in Europe was disrupted by defeat in the Crimean War. Nicholas's successor Alexander II (1855–1881) enacted significant reforms, including the abolition of serfdom in 1861; these Great Reforms spurred industrialization and modernized the Russian army, which had successfully liberated Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War.

Between 1850 and 1900, Russia's population doubled, but it remained chiefly rural. 70 Eleven major famines scourged Russia between 1845 and 1922, one of the worst being the famine of 1891–2. 71

Many socio-economic conflicts were aggravated during Alexander III’s reign (1881–1894) and under his son, Nicholas II (1894–1917). Harsh conditions in factories created mass support for the revolutionary socialist movement. In January 1905, striking workers peaceably demonstrated for reforms in Saint Petersburg but were fired upon by troops, killing and wounding hundreds. This event, known as "Bloody Sunday", along with the abject failure of the Tsar's military forces in the initially popular Russo-Japanese War, ignited the Russian Revolution of 1905.

Although the uprising was put down and Nicholas II retained much of his power, he was forced to concede major reforms, including granting the freedoms of speech and assembly, the legalization of political parties and the creation of an elected legislative assembly, the Duma; however, the hopes for basic improvements in the lives of industrial workers were mainly unfulfilled.

/
The Russian Empire in 1866 and its spheres of influence.
/
Bolshevik by Boris Kustodiev, a visual representation of the Russian Revolution.
In 1914 Russia entered World War I in response to Austria's declaration of war on Russia's ally Serbia, and fought across multiple fronts while isolated from its Triple Entente allies. The Russian army achieved such successes as the Brusilov Offensive in 1916, destroying the military of Austria-Hungary almost completely.

However, the already-existing public distrust of the regime was deepened by the rising costs of war, casualties (Russia suffered the highest number of both military and civilian deaths of the Entente Powers), and rumors of corruption and treason, leading to the outbreak of the Russian Revolution of 1917, carried out in two major acts.

A series of uprisings were organized by workers and peasants throughout the country, as well as by soldiers in the Russian army, who were mainly of peasant origin; many of them were led by democratically elected councils called Soviets . This first revolution, or February Revolution, overthrew the Russian monarchy, which was replaced by a shaky coalition of political parties that declared itself the Provisional Government.

The abdication of Nicholas II marked the end of imperial rule in Russia; the last Tsar and his family were imprisoned and later executed during the Civil War. While initially receiving the support of the Soviets, the Provisional Government proved unable to resolve many problems which had led to the February Revolution. The second revolution, the October Revolution, led by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Provisional Government and created the world’s first socialist state.

Soviet Russia

Referencess: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, History of the Soviet Union, and Russian SFSR
/
Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks and founder of the USSR.
/
Worker and Kolkhoz Woman , a giant sculpture by Vera Mukhina atop the Soviet pavilion at 1937 World's Fair in Paris.
Following the October Revolution, a civil war broke out between the new regime and the counter-revolutionaryWhite movement, while the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk concluded hostilities with the Central Powers in World War I. Russia lost its Ukrainian, Polish, Baltic, and Finnish territories by signing the treaty.

The Allied powers launched a military intervention in support of anti-Communist forces and both the Bolsheviks and White movement carried out campaigns of deportations and executions against each other, known respectively as the Red Terror and White Terror. By the end of the Russian Civil War the Russian economy and infrastructure were heavily damaged. Millions were displaced, 72 and some eventually fled Russia. 73 During the same period, the famine of 1921 claimed 5 million victims. 74

The Russian SFSR together with three other Soviet republics formed the Soviet Union on 30 December 1922. Out of the 15 republics that later constituted the Soviet Union, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the largest republic in terms of size and making up over half of the total USSR population, dominated the Soviet Union for its entire 69-year history; the USSR was often referred to, though incorrectly, as "Russia" and its people as "Russians" .

Following Lenin's death in 1924, Joseph Stalin, an elected General Secretary of the Communist Party, managed to put down all opposition groups within the party and consolidate much power in his hands. Leon Trotsky, the main proponent of the world revolution, was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1929, and Stalin's idea of socialism in one country became the primary line. In 1930s a number of open political trials gained much attention in the USSR and the world. The continued internal struggle in the Bolshevik party culminated in the Great Purge, a period of mass repressions in 1937–38, in which hundreds of thousands of people were executed, including experienced military leadership. 75

Since the end of 1920s, the government launched a planned economy, rapid industrialization of the largely rural country, and collectivization of its agriculture. Millions of citizens were relocated during the dekulakization campaign that accompanied the collectivization. Millions of people passed through the Gulag from 1929 to 1953, 76 with millions more being deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union. 77 The temporary transitional disorganisation of the country's agriculture, combined with the harsh state policies and a drought, led to the famine of 1932–1933. 78 However, though with a heavy price, the Soviet Union was transformed from an agrarian economy to a major industrial powerhouse in a short span of time.

/
The 1939 poster depicting the fast movement of the USSR from socialism to communism, with Joseph Stalin as a driver of the Soviet locomotive.
In 1933, in Germany, Hitler and his Nazi party came to power, being outspoken enemies of communism and proponents of external aggression and German expansion. Very soon the Soviet foreign policy changed dramatically, completely dropping the idea of seeking the world revolution (the very mention of it was eradicated from the new 1936 Soviet Constitution). The USSR entered the League of Nations, and Soviet diplomacy tried to establish counter-Nazism security pacts with major European countries, but these attempts mostly failed.

The Appeasement policy of Great Britain and France towards Hitler's annexions of Ruhr, Austria and finally of Czechoslovakia (following the Munich agreement of 1938) enlarged the might of Nazi Germany and put a threat of war to the Soviet Union. Around the same time the German Reich allied with the Empire of Japan, a rival of the USSR on the Far East and an open enemy in the Soviet–Japanese Border Wars in 1938–1939.

In August 1939, after another failure of talks with Britain and France, the Soviet government agreed to conclude the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Germany, pledging non-aggression between the two countries and dividing their spheres of influence in Eastern Europe. This allowed Hitler to finally start World War II and to conquer Poland, France and other countries acting on single front. At the same time the USSR was able to regain some of the former territories of the Russian Empire in Eastern Europe (see Soviet invasion of Poland and Winter War), and to gain one and a half more years for building up the Soviet military.

On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany broke the non-aggression treaty and invaded the Soviet Union with the largest and most powerful invasion force in human history, 79 opening the largest theater of the Second World War. Although the German army had considerable success early on, their onslaught was halted in the Battle of Moscow.

/
Stalingrad, 1942. The vast majority of the fighting in World War II took place on the Eastern Front. 17 Nazi Germany suffered 80% to 93% of its casualties there. 18 19
Subsequently the Germans were dealt major defeats first at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942–1943, 80 and then in the Battle of Kursk in the summer of 1943. Another German failure was the battle of Leningrad, in which the city was fully blockaded on land between 1941–44 by German and Finnish forces, suffering starvation and more than a million deaths, but never surrendering. 81

Under Stalin's administration and the leadership of such prominent commanders as Georgy Zhukov and Konstantin Rokossovsky, Soviet forces drove through Eastern Europe in 1944–45 and captured Berlin in May 1945. After marking this by the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945, the Soviet Army ousted Japanese from China's Manchukuo and North Korea, contributing to the allied victory over Japan.

/
The Moscow Victory Parade of 1945 was the first major Soviet event recorded on color film.
1941–1945 period of World War II is known in Russia as Great Patriotic War . In this conflict, which included many of the most lethal battle operations in human history, Soviet military and civilian deaths were 10.6 million and 15.9 million respectively, 82 accounting for about a third of all World War II casualties. The Soviet economy and infrastructure suffered massive devastation 83 but the Soviet Union emerged as an acknowledged superpower.

The Red Army occupied Eastern Europe after the war, including the eastern half of Germany. Dependent socialist governments were installed in these satellite states. The USSR maintained control over these nations by many means, sometimes by military force, as in the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Becoming the world's second nuclear weapons power, the USSR established the Warsaw Pact alliance and entered into a struggle for global dominance with the United States, which became known as the Cold War.

The Soviet Union exported its Communist ideology to newly formed independent allies, the People's Republic of China and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, while also helping these countries in industrialization and development. Subsequently the ideas of Communism gained ground in Cuba and many other countries.

After Stalin's death and a short period of collective leadership, a new leader Nikita Khrushchev denounced the cult of Stalin's personality and started the process of de-Stalinization. Gulag labor camps were abolished and a great many of prisoners released; 84 the general easement of repressive policies became known later as Khruschev thaw.

/
First human in space, Yuri Gagarin.
In 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1 , thus starting the Space Age, and the Russian cosmonautYuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth aboard Vostok 1 manned spacecraft on 12 April 1961. Tensions with the United States heightened when the two rivals clashed over the deployment of the U.S. Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Soviet missiles in Cuba.
/
Ostankino TV Tower in Moscow, completed in 1967 on the 50th anniversary of the October revolution. 540 metre high, it was the world's tallest free-standing structure at that time.
Following the ousting of Khrushchev, another period of collective rule ensued, until Leonid Brezhnev established himself in the early 1970s as the pre-eminent figure in Soviet politics. Brezhnev's rule oversaw economic stagnation, since the reforms, attempted by the Prime MinisterAlexey Kosygin, were stifled. Those reforms (see Kosygin reform) had been aimed into shifting the emphasis of the Soviet economy from heavy industry and military production to light industry and the production of consumer goods. However that would mean significant decentralization of economy and implementing capitalist-like elements, and the Communist leadership wouldn't accept this.

In 1979 the Soviet forces entered Afghanistan at the request of the existing communist government. The subsequent occupation drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results. Ultimately Soviet forces were withdrawn from Afghanistan in 1989 because of international opposition, persistent anti-Soviet guerilla warfare (enhanced by the U.S.), and a lack of support from Soviet citizens. Tensions rose between the U.S. and Soviet Union in the early 1980s, fueled by anti-Soviet rhetoric in the U.S., the ongoing Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, the SDI proposal, and the controversial downing in 1983 of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 by the Soviets west of Sakhalin near Moneron Island.

Prior to 1991, the Soviet economy was the second largest in the world, 85 but during its last years it was afflicted by shortages of goods in grocery stores, huge budget deficits and explosive growth in money supply leading to inflation. 86 From 1985 onwards, the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize the country and make it more democratic. However, this unexpectedly led to the rise of nationalist movements and dissolution of the Soviet Union.

In August 1991, an unsuccessful military coup, directed against Gorbachev and aimed at preserving the Soviet Union, instead led to its collapse. In Russian SFSR, Boris Yeltsin came to power and declared the end of socialist rule. The USSR splintered into fifteen independent republics and was officially dissolved in December 1991. Boris Yeltsin was elected the President of Russia in June 1991, in the first direct presidential election in Russian history.

Russian Federation

References: History of post-Soviet Russia
Banknote 5 rubles (1997) front.jpg
/
5 Russian rubles banknote of 1997, with Millennium of Russia monument and St. Sophia Cathedral on the obverse, while Novgorod Kremlin on the reverse.
During and after the disintegration of the USSR, when wide-ranging reforms including privatisation and market and trade liberalization were being undertaken, 87 the Russian economy went through a major crisis. The period was characterized by deep contraction of output, with GDP declining by roughly 50% between 1990 and the end of 1995 and industrial output declining by over 50%. 87 88

In October 1991, Yeltsin announced that Russia would proceed with radical, market-oriented reform along the lines of "shock therapy", as recommended by the United States and International Monetary Fund. 89 90 Price controls were abolished, privatization was started. Millions plunged into poverty, from 1.5% of the population living in poverty in the late Soviet era, to 39%–49% by mid-1993. 91

Delays in wage payment became a chronic problem with millions being paid months, even years late. Russia took up the responsibility for settling the USSR's external debts, even though its population made up just half of the population of the USSR at the time of its dissolution. 92 The privatization process largely shifted control of enterprises from state agencies to groups of individuals with inside connections in the Government and the mafia. Corruption became an everyday rule of life. Many of the newly rich mobsters and businesspeople took billions in cash and assets outside of the country in an enormous capital flight. 93 The depression of state and economy led to the collapse of social services; the birth rate plummeted while the death rate skyrocketed. The early and mid-1990s saw extreme lawlessness, rise of criminal gangs and violent crime. 94

/
Moscow International Business Center under construction.
The 1990s were plagued by armed conflicts in the Northern Caucasus, both ethnic conflicts between local groups and separatist Islamist insurrections against federal power. Since the Chechen separatists had declared independence in the early 1990s, an intermittent guerrillawar was fought between the rebel groups and the Russian military. Terrorist attacks against civilians carried out by separatists, most notably the Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan school siege, caused hundreds of deaths and drew worldwide attention.

High budget deficits and the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis caused the financial crisis of 1998 95 and resulted in further GDP decline. 87 On 31 December 1999 President Yeltsin resigned, handing the post to the recently appointed Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin, who then won the 2000 presidential election.

Putin suppressed the Chechen insurgency, although sporadic violence still occurs throughout the Northern Caucasus. High oil prices and initially weak currency followed by increasing domestic demand, consumption and investments has helped the economy grow for nine straight years, improving the standard of living and increasing Russia's influence on the world stage. 26 While many reforms made during the Putin presidency have been generally criticized by Western nations as un-democratic, 96 Putin's leadership over the return of order, stability, and progress has won him widespread popularity in Russia. 97 On 2 March 2008, Dmitry Medvedev was elected President of Russia, whilst Putin became Prime Minister.

Government and politics
Referencess: Government of Russia and Politics of Russia
/
Entrance to the Kremlin Senate, part of the Moscow Kremlin and the working residence of the Russian president.
/
The White House, the seat of the Russian Government, Moscow.
According to the Constitution, which was adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993 following the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, Russia is a federation and formally a semi-presidentialrepublic, wherein the President is the head of state 98 and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a representative democracy. Executive power is exercised by the government. 99

Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Federal Assembly. 100 The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, which serves as the country's supreme legal document and as a social contract for the people of the Russian Federation. The federal government is composed of three branches:

Legislative: The bicameralFederal Assembly, made up of the State Duma and the Federation Council adopts federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse, and has power of impeachment, by which it can remove the President.
Executive: The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law, and appoints the Cabinet and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.
Judiciary: The Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, Supreme Court of Arbitration and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president, interpret laws and can overturn laws they deem unconstitutional.
/
The building of the Russian State Duma on Manege Square in Moscow.
/
The Bronze Horseman monument in front of the Constitutional Court of Russia in Saint Petersburg.
According to the Constitution, the justice in the court is based on the equality of all citizens, 101 judges are independent and subject only to the law, 102 trials are to be open and the accused is guaranteed a defense. 103 Since 1996, Russia has instituted a moratorium on the death penalty, although capital punishment has not been abolished by law.

The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term but constitutionally barred for a third consecutive term); 104 election last held in 2008. Ministries of the government are composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Prime Minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the State Duma). The national legislature is the Federal Assembly, which consists of two chambers; the 450-member State Duma 105 and the 176-member Federation Council. Leading political parties in Russia include United Russia, the Communist Party, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, and Fair Russia.

Human rights

References: Human rights in Russia
The rights and liberties of the citizens of the Russian Federation are granted by Chapter 2 of the Constitution. Russia is a signatory to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and has also ratified a number of other international human rights instruments.

In 2004, Alvaro Gil-Robles, the first Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe, said that " the fledgling Russian democracy is still, of course, far from perfect, but its existence and its successes cannot be denied. " 106

However, some leading international democracy and human rights organizations consider Russia to have not enough democratic attributes and to allow few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens. 107 108 109 US-funded international organization Freedom House ranks Russia as "not free", citing "carefully engineered elections" and "absence" of debate. 110 Amnesty International accuses Russia of committing wide ranging human rights abuses, including granting impunity for murderers of human rights activists, imprisoning political dissidents and operating a system of arbitrary arrest. 107 Human Rights Watch claims Russia commits grave human rights violations in Chechnya and allows the systematic abuse of migrant workers. 108 Press freedom in Russia is considered amongst the lowest in the world by press freedom organization Reporters Without Borders and is ranked 141st in their annual survey, on the basis that the Russian authorities "black list" figures that are critical of the government, practice "official harassment", and "gag" potential dissidents. 111

Russian authorities dismiss these claims and especially criticise Freedom House. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia has called the 2006 Freedom in the World Report "prefabricated"; 112 the ministry also claims that such organizations as Freedom House and Human Rights Watch use the same scheme of voluntary extrapolation of "isolated facts that of course can be found in any country" into "dominant tendencies" . The chairwoman of the Civil Society Institution and Human Rights Council at the President of RussiaElla Pamfilova also criticized the Freedom House views on Russia as "ridiculous, absurd and far-fetched" 113 .

Foreign relations

References: Foreign relations of Russia
/
Leaders of the BRIC nations in 2008: (l-r) Manmohan Singh of India, Dmitry Medvedev of Russia, Hu Jintao of China and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil.
The Russian Federation is recognized in international law as successor state of the former Soviet Union. 20 Russia continues to implement the international commitments of the USSR, and has assumed the USSR's permanent seat on the UN Security Council, membership in other international organizations, the rights and obligations under international treaties and property and debts. Russia has a multifaceted foreign policy. As of 2009, it maintains diplomatic relations with 191 countries and has 144 embassies. 114 The foreign policy is determined by the President of Russia and implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 115

As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council, Russia plays a major role in maintaining international peace and security. The country participates in the Quartet on the Middle East and the Six-party talks with North Korea. Russia is a member of the Group of Eight (G8) industrialized nations, the Council of Europe, OSCE and APEC. Russia usually takes a leading role in regional organizations such as the CIS, EurAsEC, CSTO, and the SCO. Former President Vladimir Putin had advocated a strategic partnership with close integration in various dimensions including establishment of four common spaces between Russia and the EU. 116 Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia has developed a friendlier, albeit volatile relationship with NATO. The NATO-Russia Council was established in 2002 to allow the 26 Allies and Russia to work together as equal partners to pursue opportunities for joint collaboration. 117

Military

References: Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
/
Russian Knights and Swifts military aerobatic teams in a rhombus formation
Russia assumed control of Soviet assets abroad and most of the Soviet Union's production facilities and defense industries. 118 The Russian military is divided into the Ground Forces, Navy, and Air Force. There are also three independent arms of service: Strategic Rocket Forces, Military Space Forces, and the Airborne Troops. In 2006, the military had 1.037 million personnel on active duty. 119
/
The Admiral Kuznetsov, the Russian Navy's aircraft carrier.
Russia has the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world. It has the second largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines and is the only country apart from the U.S. with a modern strategic bomber force. 21 Russia's tank force is the largest in the world, its surface navy and air force are among the strongest.

The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry, producing most of its own military equipment with only few types of weapons imported. Russia is the world's top supplier of arms, a spot it has held since 2001, accounting for around 30% of worldwide weapons sales 120 and exporting weapons to about 80 countries. 121

It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–27 to be drafted for a year of service in Armed Forces; the government plans to increase the proportion of contract servicemen to 70% by 2010. 26 Defense expenditure has quadrupled over the past six years. 122 According to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute estimates, official government military spending for 2008 was $58 billion, the fifth largest in the world, 123 though various sources, including US intelligence, 124 and the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 119 have estimated Russia’s military expenditures to be considerably higher. 125 Currently, the military is undergoing a major equipment upgrade worth about $200 billion between 2006 and 2015. 126 Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov 127 supervises the major reforms aimed to transform a mass mobilization army into a smaller force of contract soldiers. 128

Subdivisions

References: Subdivisions of Russia
/
Map of the federal subjects of the Russian Federation.
Federal subjects
The Russian Federation comprises 83 federal subjects. 129 These subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council. 130 However, they differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy.
46 oblasts (provinces): most common type of federal subjects, with federally appointed governor and locally elected legislature.
21 republics: nominally autonomous; each has its own constitution, president, and parliament. Republics are allowed to establish their own official language alongside Russian but are represented by the federal government in international affairs. Republics are meant to be home to specific ethnic minorities.
9 krais (territories): essentially the same as oblasts. The "territory" designation is historic, originally given to frontier regions and later also to administrative divisions that comprised autonomous okrugs or autonomous oblasts.
4 autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts): originally autonomous entities within oblasts and krais created for ethnic minorities, their status was elevated to that of federal subjects in the 1990s. With the exception of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, all autonomous okrugs are still administratively subordinated to a krai or an oblast of which they are a part.
1 autonomous oblast (the Jewish Autonomous Oblast): originally autonomous oblasts were administrative units subordinated to krais. In 1990, all of them except the Jewish AO were elevated in status to that of a republic.
2 federal cities (Moscow and St. Petersburg): major cities that function as separate regions.
Federal districts
Federal subjects are grouped into 8 federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia. 131 Unlike the federal subjects, the federal districts are not a subnational level of government, but are a level of administration of the federal government. Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws.
Demographics
References: Demographics of Russia
Ethnic composition (2002) 132
Russians - 79.8%
Tatars - 3.8%
Ukrainians - 2.0%
Bashkirs - 1.2%
Chuvash - 1.1%
Chechen - 0.9%
Armenians - 0.8%
Other/unspecified - 10.4%
/
Population (in millions) 1950–1991 of Russian SFSR in USSR, 1991 – 1 January 2010 of Russian Federation. 133
Ethnic Russians comprise 79.8% of the population; however the Russian Federation is also home to several sizeable minorities. In total, 160 different other ethnic groups and indigenous peoples live within its borders. 134 Though Russia's population is comparatively large, its density is low because of the country's enormous size. 135 Population is densest in European Russia, near the Ural Mountains, and in southwest Siberia. 73% of the population lives in urban areas while 27% in rural ones. 136 The population of Russia is 141,927,297 as of 1 January 2010. 2

In 2008, the population declined by 121,400 people, or by −0.085% (in 2007 – by 212,000, or 0.15% and in 2006 – by 532,600 people, or 0.37%). In 2008 migration continued to grow by a pace of 2.7% with 281,615 migrants arriving to the Russian Federation, of which 95% came from CIS countries, the vast majority being Russians or Russian speakers. 133 137

The number of Russian emigrants declined by 16% to 39,508, of which 66% went to other CIS countries. There are also an estimated 10 million illegal immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia. 138 Roughly 116 million ethnic Russians live in Russia 139 and about 20 million more live in other former republics of the Soviet Union, 140 mostly in Ukraine and Kazakhstan. 141 142

The population of Russia peaked at 148,689,000 in 1991, just before the breakup of the Soviet Union. It began to experience a rapid decline starting in the mid-90s. 143 The decline has slowed to near stagnation in recent years due to reduced death rates, increased birth rates and increased immigration. The number of deaths during 2008 was 363,500 greater than the number of births. This is down from 477,700 in 2007, and 687,100 in 2006. 133 137 According to data published by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service, the mortality rate in Russia declined 4% in 2007, as compared to 2006, reaching some 2 million deaths, while the birth rate grew 8.3% year-on-year to an estimated 1.6 million live births. 144

The primary causes of Russia's population decrease are a high death rate and low birth rate. While Russia's birth-rate is comparable to that of other European countries (12.1 births per 1000 people in 2008 133 compared to the European Union average of 9.90 per 1000) 145 its population is declining at a greater rate than many due to a substantially higher death rate (in 2008, Russia's death rate was 14.5 per 1000 people 133 compared to the European Union average of 10.28 per 1000). 146 However, the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Affairs predicts that by 2011, the death rate will equal the birth rate due to increases in fertility and decline in mortality. 147

view - >talk - edit
Moscow
Moscow
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg

- Rank - Core City - Federal Subject - Pop. -
view - >talk - edit
Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod
Samara
Samara
Kazan
Kazan
Omsk
Omsk
1 - Moscow - Moscow - 10,508,971
2 - Saint Petersburg - Saint Petersburg - 4,600,310
3 - Novosibirsk - Novosibirsk - 1,397,191
4 - Yekaterinburg - Sverdlovsk - 1,332,264
5 - Nizhny Novgorod - Nizhny Novgorod - 1,272,527
6 - Samara - Samara - 1,134,716
7 - Kazan - Tatarstan - 1,130,170
8 - Omsk - Omsk - 1,129,120
9 - Chelyabinsk - Chelyabinsk - 1,093,699
10 - Rostov-on-Don - Rostov - 1,048,991
11 - Ufa - Bashkortostan - 1,024,842
12 - Perm - Perm - 985,794
13 - Volgograd - Volgograd - 981,909
14 - Krasnoyarsk - Krasnoyarsk - 947,801
15 - Voronezh - Voronezh - 843,496
16 - Saratov - Saratov - 830,953
17 - Tolyatti - Samara - 720,346
18 - Krasnodar - Krasnodar - 710,686
19 - Izhevsk - Udmurtia - 611,043
20 - Yaroslavl - Yaroslavl - 606,336
Rosstat (2009) 148

Language

Referencess: Russian language and Languages of Russia
/
Countries where the Russian language is spoken.
Russia's 160 ethnic groups speak some 100 languages. 14 According to the 2002 census, 142.6 million people speak Russian, followed by Tatar with 5.3 million and Ukrainian with 1.8 million speakers. 149 Russian is the only official state language, but the Constitution gives the individual republics the right to make their native language co-official next to Russian. 150

Despite its wide dispersal, the Russian language is homogeneous throughout Russia. Russian is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken Slavic language. 151 Russian belongs to the Indo-European language family and is one of the living members of the East Slavic languages; the others being Belarusian and Ukrainian (and possibly Rusyn). Written examples of Old East Slavic ( Old Russian ) are attested from the 10th century onwards. 152

Over a quarter of the world's scientific literature is published in Russian. Russian is also applied as a means of coding and storage of universal knowledge—60–70% of all world information is published in the English and Russian languages. 153 The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.

Religion

References: Religion in Russia
/
A symbol of Russia's religious renaissance, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, demolished in the Soviet times and rebuilt from 1990–2000
Christianity, Islam, Buddhism and Judaism are Russia’s traditional religions, deemed part of Russia's "historical heritage" in a law passed in 1997. 154 Estimates of believers widely fluctuate among sources, and some reports put the number of non-believers in Russia at 16–48% of the population. 155 Russian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in Russia. 156 95% of the registered Orthodox parishes belong to the Russian Orthodox Church while there are a number of smaller Orthodox Churches. 157 However, the vast majority of Orthodox believers do not attend church on a regular basis. Nonetheless, the church is widely respected by both believers and nonbelievers, who see it as a symbol of Russian heritage and culture. 158 Smaller Christian denominations such as Roman Catholics, Armenian Gregorians, and various Protestants exist.

The ancestors of many of today’s Russians adopted Orthodox Christianity in the 10th century. 158 The 2007 International Religious Freedom Report published by the US Department of State said that approximately 100 million citizens consider themselves Russian Orthodox Christians. 159 According to a poll by the Russian Public Opinion Research Center, 63% of respondents considered themselves Russian Orthodox, 6% of respondents considered themselves Muslim and less than 1% considered themselves either Buddhist, Catholic, Protestant or Jewish. Another 12% said they believe in God, but did not practice any religion, and 16% said they are non-believers. 160

/
All Religions Temple in a multicultural city of Kazan.
It is estimated that Russia is home to some 15–20 million Muslims. 161 162 However, the Islamic scholar and human rights activist Roman Silantyev has claimed that there are only 7 to 9 million people who adhere to the Islamic religion in Russia. 163 Russia also has an estimated 3 million to 4 million Muslim migrants from the ex-Soviet states. 164 Most Muslims live in the Volga-Ural region, as well as in the North Caucasus, Moscow, 165 Saint Petersburg and western Siberia. 166

Buddhism is traditional for three regions of the Russian Federation: Buryatia, Tuva, and Kalmykia. 167 Some residents of the Siberian and Far Eastern regions, Yakutia, Chukotka, etc., practice shamanist, pantheistic, and pagan rites, along with the major religions. Induction into religion takes place primarily along ethnic lines. Slavs are overwhelmingly Orthodox Christian. Turkic speakers are predominantly Muslim, although several Turkic groups in Russia are not. 168

Health

References: Health in Russia
The Russian Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all citizens. 169 In practice, however, free health care is partially restricted due to propiska regime. 170 171 While Russia has more physicians, hospitals, and health care workers than almost any other country in the world on a per capita basis, 172 173 since the collapse of the Soviet Union the health of the Russian population has declined considerably as a result of social, economic, and lifestyle changes. 174 As of 2007, the average life expectancy in Russia is 61.5 years for males and 73.9 years for females. 175 The combined average Russian life expectancy of 67.7 years at birth is 10.8 years shorter than the overall figure in the European Union. 176

The biggest factor contributing to this relatively low life expectancy for males is a high mortality rate among working-age males from preventable causes (e.g., alcohol poisoning, stress, smoking, traffic accidents, violent crimes). Mortality among Russian men rose by 60% since 1991, four to five times higher than in Europe. 177 As a result of the large difference in life expectancy between men and women and because of the lasting effect of World War II, where Russia lost more men than any other nation in the world, the gender imbalance remains to this day and there are 0.859 males to every female. 26

/
A mobile clinic used to provide health care to people at remote railway stations.
Heart diseases account for 56.7% of total deaths, with about 30% involving people still of working age. A study blamed alcohol for more than half the deaths (52%) among Russians aged 15 to 54 from 1990 to 2001. For the same demographic, this compares to 4% of deaths for the rest of the world. 178 About 16 million Russians suffer from cardiovascular diseases, placing Russia second in the world, after Ukraine, in this respect. 177 Death rates from homicide, suicide, and cancer are also especially high. 179 52% of men and 15% of women smoke, more than 260,000 lives believed to be lost each year as a result of tobacco use. 180

HIV/AIDS, virtually non-existent in the Soviet era, rapidly spread following the collapse, mainly through the explosive growth of intravenous drug use. 181 According to official statistics, there are currently more than 364,000 people in Russia registered with HIV, but independent experts place the number significantly higher. 182 In increasing efforts to combat the disease, the government increased spending on HIV control measures 20-fold in 2006, and the 2007 budget doubled that of 2006. 183 Since the Soviet collapse, there has also been a dramatic rise in both cases of and deaths from tuberculosis, with the disease being particularly widespread amongst prison inmates. 184

In an effort to stem Russia's demographic crisis, the government is implementing a number of programs designed to increase the birth rate and attract more migrants to alleviate the problem. The government has doubled monthly child support payments and offered a one-time payment of 250,000 Rubles (around US$10,000) to women who had a second child since 2007. 185 In 2007, Russia saw the highest birth rate since the collapse of the USSR. 186 The First Deputy PM also said about 20 billion rubles (about US$1 billion) will be invested in new prenatal centers in Russia in 2008–2009. Immigration is increasingly seen by the United Nations as necessary to sustain the country's population. 187

Education

References: Education in Russia
/
Moscow State University.
/
A school in Moscow.
Russia has a free education system guaranteed to all citizens by the Constitution, 188 and has a literacy rate of 99.4%. 26 Entry to higher education is highly competitive. 189 As a result of great emphasis on science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and space and aviation research is generally of a high order. 190 191

Before 1990 the course of school training in Soviet Union was 10-years, but at the end of 1990 the 11-year course has been officially entered. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free; first tertiary (university level) education is free with reservations: a substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay (many state institutions started to open commercial positions in the last years 192 ). In 2004 state spending for education amounted to 3.6% of GDP, or 13% of consolidated state budget. 193

The Government allocates funding to pay the tuition fees within an established quota, or number of students for each state institution. This is considered crucial because it provides access to higher education to all skilled students, as opposed to only those who can afford it. In addition, students are paid a small stipend and provided with free housing. Apart from state higher education institutions, many private ones have emerged to address the need for a skilled work-force for high-tech and emerging industries and economic sectors. 194

Economy
References: Economy of Russia
/
Russian economy since the end of the Soviet Union.
The economic crisis that struck all post-Soviet countries in the 1990s was nearly twice as intense as the Great Depression in the countries of Western Europe and the United States in the 1930s. 195 196 Even before the financial crisis of 1998, Russia's GDP was half of what it had been in the early 1990s. 196 Since the turn of the century, rising oil prices, increased foreign investment, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Russia. 197

The country ended 2007 with its ninth straight year of growth, averaging 7% annually since 1998. In 2007, Russia's GDP was $2.076 trillion (est. PPP), the 6th largest in the world, with GDP growing 8.1% from the previous year. Growth was primarily driven by non-traded services and goods for the domestic market, as opposed to oil or mineral extraction and exports. 26

The average salary in Russia was $640 per month in early 2008, up from $80 in 2000. 198 Approximately 14% of Russians lived below the national poverty line in 2007, 199 significantly down from 40% in 1998 at the worst of the post-Soviet collapse. 91 Unemployment in Russia was at 6% in 2007, down from about 12.4% in 1999. 200 201

Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber account for more than 80% of Russian exports abroad. 26 Since 2003, however, exports of natural resources started decreasing in economic importance as the internal market strengthened considerably. Despite higher energy prices, oil and gas only contribute to 5.7% of Russia's GDP and the government predicts this will drop to 3.7% by 2011. 202 Russia is also considered well ahead of most other resource-rich countries in its economic development, with a long tradition of education, science, and industry. 203 The country has more higher education graduates than any other country in Europe. 204

/
A Rosneft petrol station. Russia is the world's leading natural gas exporter and the second leading oil exporter.
A simpler, more streamlined tax code adopted in 2001 reduced the tax burden on people, and dramatically increased state revenue. 205 Russia has a flat personal income tax rate of 13 percent. This ranks it as the country with the second most attractive personal tax system for single managers in the world after the United Arab Emirates. 206 207
/
Regional product per capita as of 2007 (darker is higher).
The federal budget has run surpluses since 2001 and ended 2007 with a surplus of 6% of GDP. Over the past several years, Russia has used oil revenues from its Stabilization Fund of the Russian Federation to prepay most of its formerly massive debts, 208 leaving it with one of the lowest foreign debts among major economies.

Oil export earnings have allowed Russia to increase its foreign reserves from $12 billion in 1999 to $597.3 billion on 1 August 2008, the third largest reserves in the world. 209

The economic development of the country though has been uneven geographically with the Moscow region contributing a disproportionately high amount of the country's GDP. 210 Much of Russia, especially indigenous and rural communities in Siberia, lags significantly behind. Nevertheless, the middle class has grown from just 8 million persons in 2000 to 55 million persons in 2006. 211 Over the last five years, fixed capital investments have averaged real gains greater than 10% per year and personal incomes have achieved real gains more than 12% per year.

Despite the country's strong economic performance since 1999, however, the World Bank lists several challenges facing the Russian economy including its diversification, encouraging the growth of small and medium enterprises, building human capital and improving corporate governance. 212 Another problem is modernisation of infrastructure, ageing and inadequate after years of being neglected; 213 the government has said $1 trillion will be invested in development of infrastructure by 2020. 214

Agriculture

References: Agriculture in Russia
/
Rye Fields , by Ivan Shishkin. Russia is the world's top producer of rye, barley, buckwheat, oats and sunflower seed, and one of the largest producers and exporters of wheat.
/
A reindeer sled in Arkhangelsk. Russia owns about two-thirds of the world's livestock of domesticated reindeer. 215
The total area of cultivated land in Russia was estimated as 1,237,294 km 2 in 2005, the fourth largest in the world. 216 Unlike most other countries, Russia has large reserves of unused arable land, in part due to the drop in agricultural production during the economy crisis of 1990s, when the area planted to grains dropped by 25%. This was accompanied by a severe decline of livestock inventories.

In 1999–2009, however, Russia's agriculture demonstrated steady growth, 217 and the country turned from a grain importer to the third largest grain exporter after EU and U. S. in 2009. 218 The production of meat has grown from 6,813,000 tonnes in 1999 to 9,331,000 tonnes in 2008, and continues to grow. 219

This restoration of agriculture was supported by successful farm credit policy of the government, helping both individual farmers and large privatized corporate farms, that once were Soviet kolkhozes and still own the significant share of agricultural land. While large individual farms and corporate farms concentrate mainly on the production of grain (including for export), as well as husbandry products, small private household plots produce most of the country's yield of potatoes, vegetables and fruits.

Energy

Referencess: Energy in Russia and Nuclear power in Russia
/
Russia is a key oil and gas supplier to much of Europe.
Russia is known as an energy superpower. The country has the world's largest natural gas reserves, the 8th largest oil reserves, and the second largest coal reserves. Russia is the world's leading natural gas exporter and leading natural gas producer, while also the second largest oil exporter and largest oil producer, though Russia interchanges the latter status with Saudi Arabia from time to time.

Russia is the 4th largest electricity generator in the world and the 5th largest renewable energy producer, the latter due to the well-developed hydroelectricity production in the country. Large cascades of hydropower plants are built in European Russia along big rivers like Volga. The Asian part of Russia also features a number of major hydropower stations, however the gigantic hydroelectric potential of Siberia and the Russian Far East largely remains unexploited.

Russia was the first country to develop civilian nuclear reactor and to introduce the first nuclear power plant. Currently, Russia is the 4th largest nuclear energy producer. Rosatom Nuclear Energy State Corporation manages all the nuclear plants in Russia. Nuclear energy is rapidly developing in Russia, with the aim of increasing the total share of nuclear energy from current 16.9% to 23% by 2020. The Russian government plans to allocate 127 billion rubles ($5.42 billion) to a federal program dedicated to the next generation of nuclear energy technology. About 1 trillion rubles ($42.7 billion) is to be allocated from the federal budget to nuclear power and industry development before 2015. 220 Russia remains among the world leaders in nuclear technology and is a member of ITER international fusion reactor project.

Science and technology

Referencess: Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federal Space Agency, United Aircraft Corporation, Rosatom, Rosoboronexport, and Russian inventors
/
The original headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Kunstkamera building in St. Petersburg.
/
Mikhail Lomonosov, Russian polymath scientist, inventor, poet and artist, the founder of Moscow State University.
At the start of the 18th century the reforms of Peter the Great (the founder of Russian Academy of Sciences and Saint Petersburg State University) and the work of such champions as polymathMikhail Lomonosov (the founder of Moscow State University) gave a great boost for development of science and innovation in Russia.

In the 19th and 20th centuries the country produced a large number of great scientistsand inventors.

In mathematics Nikolai Lobachevsky, a Copernicus of Geometry , founded the non-Euclidean geometry. At least after such prominent scientist as Chebyshev the Russian mathematical school became one of the most influential ones in the world and was represented by numerous figures greatly contributing to different fields of mathematics, physics and computing sciences. 221 Chebyshev's students included Aleksandr Lyapunov who founded the modern stability theory (lately deeply developed by such scientists as Aleksandr Andronov and Vladimir Arnold), and Andrey Markov who developed the theory of Markov chains, playing a central role in information sciences and modern applied mathematics. Nikolai Zhukovsky was a founding father of the modern aero- and hydrodynamics. Andrei Kolmogorov, a leading mathematician of the 20th century, developed the modern theory of probability and made other major contributions to broadest range of mathematical branches, including turbulence, topology and information theory. Israel Gelfand is credited with many important discoveries in mathematical physics and applied sciences. Sergei Sobolev developed a theory of Sobolev space which played an extremely important role in formation of modern mathematical views and introduced a notion of distributions generalyzing ideas of Newton and Leibniz. Yevgraf Fyodorov was a founder of modern crystallography. Nicolai Vasiliev was a forerunner of paraconsistent and multi-valued logics. Such mathematicians as Pavel Alexandrov, Lev Pontryagin, Andrey Tychonoff, and many others made fundamental contributions to different fields of mathematics. Nine Soviet/Russian mathematicians were awarded with Fields Medal, a most prestigious award in mathematics. Recently Grigori Perelman was offered the first ever Clay Millennium Prize Problems award for his final proof of the Poincaré conjecture in 2002. 222

/
A sculpture in honor of Dmitry Mendeleev and his Periodic table in Slovakia.
In chemistry Dmitry Mendeleev invented the Periodic table, that is the main framework of the modern chemistry, while Aleksandr Butlerov was one of the creators of the theory of chemical structure, playing a central role in organic chemistry. Nikolay Semyonov made major contributions to explanation of the mechanism of chemical transformation (1956 Nobel Prize in Chemistry).
/
Modern headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow.
The Russian physics school began to develop after Lomonosov. During the period of origin of electrodynamicsVasily Petrov discovered the electric arc effect in 1802 and Heinrich Lenz discovered an important law named in his honor. Nikolay Umov discovered a fundamental concept of Umov-Poynting vector and was the first scientist to indicate interrelation between mass and energy proposing the formula E = k m c 2 as early as in 1873. 223 Alexander Popov was among the inventors of radio. Russian/Soviet physics in the 20th century was one of leading ones in the world. Nikolay Bogolyubov suggested a triplet quark model, introduced a new quantum degree of freedom (later called as color charge) for quarks 224 and formulated a microscopic theory of superconductivity. 225 Lev Landau made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics. Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov were co-inventors of lasers and masers. Igor Tamm, Andrei Sakharov and Lev Artsimovich developed the idea of tokamak for controlled nuclear fusion and created its first prototype, which finally led to the modern ITER project. Yevgeny Zavoisky discovered electron paramagnetic resonance playing important role in studying chemical species.

In biology Dmitry Ivanovsky was the first scientist to discover viruses (1892). 226 Ivan Pavlov is widely known for first describing the phenomenon of classical conditioning. Ilya Mechnikov was a pioneer in investigations of the immune system (1908, Nobel Prize in Medicine).

In computing sciences the first ternary computerSetun was developed by Nikolay Brusentsov, together with Sergei Sobolev, in 1958 and Sergei Lebedev developed one of the first universally programmable computers in continental Europe in 1950, MESM.

/
Shukhov Tower in Moscow.
Nikolay Benardos introduced the arc welding, further developed by Nikolay Slavyanov, Konstantin Khrenov and other Russian engineers. Gleb Kotelnikov invented the knapsackparachute, while Evgeniy Chertovsky introduced the pressure suit. Pavel Yablochkov and Alexander Lodygin were pioneers of electric street lighting, and Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky invented the three-phase electric power system, widely used today.
/
Soyuz TMA-2 is launched from Baikonur, Kazakhstan carrying one of the first resident crews to the International Space Station.
Many famous Russian scientists and inventors were émigrés, like Igor Sikorsky, credited with invention of first helicopters, and Vladimir Zworykin, often called the father of TV, chemist Ilya Prigogine, noted for his work on dissipative structures and complex systems (1977 Nobel Prize for Chemistry), economists Simon Kuznets (1971 Nobel Prize) and Wassily Leontief (1973 Nobel Prize), physicist Georgiy Gamov (an author of the Big Bang theory) and social scientist Pitirim Sorokin who played an important role in development of sociology in the USA. Many foreigners worked in Russia for a long time, like Leonard Euler and Alfred Nobel.

The greatest Russian successes are in the field of space technology and space exploration. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was the father of theoretical austronautics. 227 His works had inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers such as Sergey Korolyov, Valentin Glushko and many others that contributed to the success of the Soviet space program at early stages of the Space Race and beyond.

In 1957 the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite, Sputnik 1 , was launched; in 1961 on 12 April the first human trip into space was successfully made by Yury Gagarin; and many other Soviet and Russian space exploration records ensued, including the first spacewalk performed by Alexey Leonov, the first space exploration roverLunokhod-1 and the first space stationSalyut 1 . Nowadays Russia is the largest satellite launcher 228 229 and the only provider of transport for space tourism services.

/
AK-47, the most widely used type of assault rifle in the world.
Other technologies, where Russia historically leads, include nuclear technology, aircraft production and arms industry.

The creation of the first nuclear power plant along with the first nuclear reactors for submarines and surface ships was directed by Igor Kurchatov. NSLenin was the world's first nuclear powered surface ship as well as the first nuclear powered civilian vessel, and NSArktika became the first surface ship to reach the North Pole.

The history of the Russian aircraft eingineering originated from a pioneer of aviation Alexander Mozhaysky who made his first attempt to fly by his own design aircraft (monoplane) as early as in 1881. In the 20th century a number of prominent Soviet aerospace engineers, inspired by the theoretical works of Nikolai Zhukovsky, supervised the creation of many dozens of models of military and civilian aircraft and founded a number of KBs ( Construction Bureaus ) that now constitute the bulk of Russian United Aircraft Corporation.

Famous Russian airplanes include the first supersonic passenger jet Tupolev Tu-144 by Alexei Tupolev, MiGfighter aircraft series by Artem Mikoyan and Mikhail Gurevich, and Su series by Pavel Sukhoi and his followers. MiG-15 is the world's most producedjet aircraft in history, while MiG-21 is the most produced supersonic aircraft. During World War II era Bereznyak-Isayev BI-1 was introduced as the first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, and Ilyushin Il-2 bomber became the most produced military aircraft in history. Polikarpov Po-2 Kukuruznik is the world's most produced biplane, and Mil Mi-8 is the most produced helicopter.

/
T-90 Russian tank in the Indian Army service.
Famous Russian battle tanks include T-34, the best tank design of World War II, 230 and further tanks of T-series, including the most produced tank in history, T-54/55, 231 the first fully gas turbine tank T-80 and the most modern Russian tank T-90. The AK-47 and AK-74 by Mikhail Kalashnikov constitute the most widely used type of assault rifle throughout the world — so much so that more AK-type rifles have been manufactured than all other assault rifles combined. 232 233 With these and other weapons Russia for a long time has been among the world's top suppliers of arms, accounting for around 30% of worldwide weapons sales 120 and exporting weapons to about 80 countries. 121

/
The Sukhoi Superjet 100 is the latest civilian product of the Russian aircraft industry.
With such technological achievements, however, since the time of Brezhnev stagnation Russia was lagging significantly behind the West in a number of technologies, especially those concerning energy conservation and consumer goods production. The crisis of 1990-s led to the drastic reduction of the state support for science. Many Russian scientists and university graduates left Russia for Europe or United States; this migration is known as a brain drain.

In 2000-s, on the wave of a new economic boom, the situation in the Russian science and technology has improved, and the government launched a campaign aimed into modernisation and innovation. Russia's PresidentDmitry Medvedev formulated top 5 priorities for the country's technological development: energy efficiency, IT (including both common products and the products combined with space technology), nuclear energy and pharmaceuticals. 234 Some progress already has been achieved, with Russia's having nearly completed GLONASS, the only global satellite navigation system apart from American GPS, and Russia's being the only country constructing mobile nuclear plants.

Transportation

Referencess: Transport in Russia and Russian Railways
/
The marker for kilometre 9288, at the end of the Trans-Siberian Railway in Vladivostok.
Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways monopoly. The company accounts for over 3.6% of Russia’s GDP and handles 39% of the total of Russia’s freight traffic (including pipelines) and more than 42% of passenger traffic. 235 The total length of common-used railway tracks exceeeds 85,500 km, 235 second only to the United States. Over 44,000 km of tracks are electrified, 236 which is the largest number in the world, and additionally there are more than 30,000 km of industrial non-common carrier lines. Railways in Russia, unlike in the most of the world, use broad gauge of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11+5 6 in) , with the exception of 957 km on Sakhalin Island using narrow gauge of 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) . The most renown railroad in Russia is Trans-Siberian Railway or Transsib, spanning a record 7 time zones and serving the longest single continuous services in the world, Moscow-Vladivostok (9,259 km, 5,753 mi), Moscow–Pyongyang (10,267 km, 6,380 mi) 237 and Kiev–Vladivostok (11,085 km, 6,888 mi). 238

As of 2006 Russia had 933,000 km of roads, of which 755,000 were paved. 239 Some of these make up the Russian federal motorway system. With a large land area the road density is the lowest of all the G8 and BRIC countries. 240 A Russian saying states that There are two main problems in Russia: fools and roads , however this very lack of roads was of much help to Russians in the times of Napoleon's and Hitler's invasions.

/
Yamal , one of Russia's nuclear icebreakers (Gallery).
102,000 km of inland waterways in Russia mostly go by natural rivers or lakes. In the European part of the country the network of channels connects the basins of major rivers. Russia's capital, Moscow, is sometimes called "the port of the five seas" , due to its waterway connections to the Baltic, White, Caspian, Azov and Black seas.

Major sea ports of Russia include Rostov-on-Don on the Azov Sea, Novorossiysk on the Black Sea, Astrakhan and Makhachkala on the Caspian Sea, Kaliningrad and St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea, Arkhangelsk on the White Sea, Murmansk on the Barents Sea, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean. In 2008 Russia owned 1448 merchant marine ships. Russia is the only country to have nuclear icebreaker fleet, which is a great advantage in the economic exploitation of Arctic continental shelf of Russia and the development of sea trade through the Northern Sea Route between Europe and East Asia.

There are 74,285 km of oil pipelines in Russia, 13,658 km of pipelines for refined products, 158,767 km of natural gas pipelines 241 By total length of pipelines Russia is second only to the United States. Currently, many new pipeline projects are being realized, including Nord Stream and South Stream natural gas pipelines to Europe, and ESPO oil pipeline to Russian Far East and China.

/
Exquisite decoration of Moscow Metro, here shown at Arbatskaya station
Russia has 1216 airports, 242 the busiest being Sheremetyevo, Domodedovo, and Vnukovo in Moscow and Pulkovo in Saint Petersburg. The total length of airlines in Russia exceeds 600,000 km. 243 In the remote regions of the Russian North and Siberia the transportation by air (usually by helicopters) is vital, and in some months of the year it is the only transport link to the rest of the country.

Typically, major Russian cities have well-developed and diverse systems of public transport, with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus, trolleybus and tram. Seven Russian cities, namely Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Samara, Yekaterinburg and Kazan, have undeground metros, while Volgograd features a metrotram. Total length of metros in Russia is 465.4 km. Moscow Metro and Saint Petersburg Metro are the oldest in Russia, opened in 1935 and 1955 respectively. These two are among the fastest and busiest metro systems in the world, and are famous for rich decorations and unique designs of their stations, which is a common tradition for Russian metros and railways.

Culture
References: Russian culture
/
Kuban Cossack Choir performing in the national costumes.

Folk culture and cuisine

Referencess: Russian folklore, Russian humour, Russian jokes, Russian fairy tales, and Russian cuisine
There are over 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Russia. Ethnic Russians with their SlavicOrthodox culture, Tatars and Bashkirs with their TurkicMuslim culture, BuddhistnomadicBuryats and Kalmyks, Shamanistic peoples of the Far North and Siberia, highlanders of the Northern Caucasus, Finno-Ugric peoples of the Russian North West and Volga Region all contribute to diverse and rich culture of Russia. The ethnic culture is preserved in various museums and ethno-parks, reproduced in cuisine, architecture, cinema and arts, and developed by folk bands, dance ensembles and choirs.

Woodcraft Russian architecture, widely associated with the ethnic culture, is at best represented in wooden churches. Russian traditional wooden dwelling is izba, while the early type of fortified settlements is known as kremlin. Handicraft, like Dymkovo toy, khokhloma, gzhel, Zhostovo painting, pisanka and palekh, is also associated with the folk culture. Ethnic Russian clothes include kaftan, kosovorotka and ushanka for men, sarafan and kokoshnik for women, with lapti and valenki as common shoes. The Cossacks of Southern Russia have a separate brand of culture within ethnic Russian, their clothes including burka and papaha, which they share with the peoples of the Northern Caucasus.

/
Preparation of pelmeni, a common Russian dish of Tatar origin (the word itself is from Komi and Mansi languages). Khokhloma handicraft is seen on the background.
Russian cuisine widely uses fish, poultry, mushrooms, berries, and honey. Crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet provide the ingredients for a plethora of breads, pancakes, cereals, kvass, beer, and vodka. Black bread is relatively more popular in Russia if compared with the rest of the world. Flavourful soups and stews include shchi, borsch, ukha, solyanka and okroshka.

Smetana (a heavy sour cream) is often added to soups and salads. Pirozhki, blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Cutlets (like Chicken Kiev), pelmeni and shashlyk are popular meat dishes, the last two being of Tatar and Caucasus origin respectively. Popular salads include Russian salad, vinaigrette and Dressed Herring.

Russians have many traditions, most prominent being the washing in banya, a hot steam bath somewhat similar to sauna. Old Russian folklore takes its roots in the pagan beliefs of ancient Slavs and now is represented in the Russian fairy tales. Epic Russian bylinas are another important part of Slavic mythology. The oldest bylinas of Kievan cycle were actually recorded mostly in the Russian North, especially in Karelia, where most of the Finnish national epic Kalevala was recorded as well.

/
Russian Venus by Boris Kustodiev, shows a girl with birch twigs in a rural banya.
/
Bogatyrs by Viktor Vasnetsov. The three epic heroes of Russian mythology: (l-r) Dobrynya Nikitich, Ilya Muromets and Alyosha Popovich.
Russia's large number of ethnic groups have distinctive traditions of folk music. Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli, balalaika, zhaleika and garmoshka. Folk music had great influence on the Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands, most prominent being Melnitsa. Russian folk songs, as well as patriotic songs of the Soviet era, constitute the bulk of repertoire of the world-renown Red Army choir and other popular Russian ensembles.

Many Russian fairy tales and bylinas were adaptated for animation films, or for feature movies by the prominent directors like Aleksandr Ptushko ( Ilya Muromets , Sadko ) and Aleksandr Rou ( Morozko , Vasilisa the Beautiful ). Some Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov and Leonid Filatov, made a number of well-known poetical interpretations of the classical Russian fairy tales, and in some cases, like that of Alexander Pushkin, also created fully original fairy tale poems of great popularity.

Architecture

Referencess: Russian architecture and Russian architects
Russian architecture began with the woodcraft buildings of ancient Slavs. Since Christianization of Kievan Rus' for several ages Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture, until the Fall of Constantinople. Apart from fortifications (kremlins), the main stone buildings of ancient Rus' were Orthodox churches, with their many domes, often gilded or brightly painted. Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia.

The 16th century saw the development of unique tent-like churches culminating in Saint Basil's Cathedral. By that time the onion dome design was also fully developed. In the 17th century, the "fiery style" of ornamentation flourished in Moscow and Yaroslavl, gradually paving the way for the Naryshkin baroque of the 1690s. After Peter the Great reforms had made Russia much closer to Western culture, the change of the architectural styles in Russia generally followed that of Western Europe.

/
Wooden churches of Kizhi, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
/
Triumph Palace, Europe's tallest residential building, is a modern realisation of Stalin Empire Styleskyscrapers' design.
The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the splendid works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers. During the reign of Catherine the Great and her grandson Alexander I, the city of Saint Petersburg was transformed into an outdoor museum of Neoclassical architecture.

The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Byzantine and Russian Revival style (this corresponds to Gothic Revival in Western Europe). Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau (Fyodor Shekhtel), Constructivism (Aleksey Shchusev and Konstantin Melnikov), and the Stalin Empire style (Boris Iofan).

After Stalin's death a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khruschev, condemned the "excesses" of the former architectural styles, and in the late Soviet era the architecture of the country was dominated by plain functionalism. This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created a large quantity of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright architecture. After the end of the Soviet Union the situation improved. Many churches demolished in Soviet times were rebuilt, and this process continues along with the restoration of various historical buildings destroyed in World War II. As for the original architecture, there is no longer any common style in modern Russia, though International style has a great influence.

Visual arts

Referencess: Russian visual arts and Russian artists
/
The Trinity icon by Andrei Rublev.
Early Russian painting focused on icon painting and vibrant frescos inherited by Russians from Byzantium. As Moscow rose to power, Theophanes the Greek and Andrei Rublev became vital names associated with the beginning of a distinctly Russian art.

The Russian Academy of Arts was created in 1757, aimed to give Russian artists an international role and status. Notable portrait painters from the Academy include Ivan Argunov, Fyodor Rokotov, Dmitry Levitzky, and Vladimir Borovikovsky. In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, famous academic artists focused on mythological and Biblical themes, like Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov.

/
Rus': The Soul of the People by Mikhail Nesterov, symbolic of Russia's historical spiritual quest.
Realism came into dominance in the 19th century. The realists captured Russian identity in landscapes of wide rivers, forests, and birch clearings, as well as vigorous genre scenes and robust portraits of their contemporaries. Other artists focused on social criticism, showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II, with some artists making the circle of human suffering their main theme. Others focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history.

The Peredvizhniki ( wanderers ) group of artists broke with Russian Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from Academic restrictions. Leading realists include Ivan Shishkin, Arkhip Kuindzhi, Ivan Kramskoi, Vasily Polenov, Isaac Levitan, Vasily Surikov, Viktor Vasnetsov, and Ilya Repin.

By the turn of the 20th century and on, many Russian artists developed their own vividly unique styles, neither realist nor avante-garde. These include Boris Kustodiev, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Mikhail Vrubel and Nicholas Roerich.

/
The Amber Room. German-Russian masterpiece, looted by Nazi Germany in World War II and restored in 2003.
The Russian avant-garde is an umbrella term used to define the large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia from approximately 1890 to 1930. The term covers many separate, but inextricably related, art movements that occurred at the time; namely neo-primitivism, suprematism, constructivism, rayonism, and futurism. Notable artists from this era include El Lissitzky, Kazimir Malevich, Wassily Kandinsky, Vladimir Tatlin, Alexander Rodchenko, and Marc Chagall. The Russian avant-garde reached its creative and popular height in the period between the Russian Revolution of 1917 and 1932, at which point the revolutionary ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of socialist realism.

In the Soviet era many artists combined innovation with socialist realism including Ernst Neizvestny, Ilya Kabakov, Mikhail Shemyakin, Erik Bulatov, and Vera Mukhina. They employed techniques as varied as primitivism, hyperrealism, grotesque, and abstraction. Soviet artists produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist in the 1940s. After the Great Patriotic War Soviet sculptors made multiple monuments to the war dead, marked by a great restrained solemnity.

In the 20th century many Russian artists made their careers in Western Europe, forced to emigrate by the Revolution. Wassily Kandinsky, Marc Chagall, Naum Gabo and others spread their work, ideas, and the impact of Russian art globally.

Classical music and ballet

Referencess: Russian music, Russian ballet, Russian opera, Russian composers, Russian opera singers, and Russian ballet dancers
/
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893), composer, the author of the world's most famous works of ballet: Swan Lake , The Nutcracker , and Sleeping Beauty .
/
A scene from The Nutcracker ballet.
Music in 19th century Russia was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with his followers, who embraced Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinstein, which was musically conservative. The later Romantic tradition of Tchaikovsky, one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era, whose music has come to be known and loved for its distinctly Russian character as well as its rich harmonies and stirring melodies, was brought into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music. 244

World-renowned composers of the 20th century included Scriabin, Stravinsky, Rachmaninoff, Prokofiev, Shostakovich and Sviridov. During most of the Soviet Era, music was highly scrutinized and kept within a conservative, accessible idiom in conformity with the policy of socialist realism.

Soviet and Russian conservatories have turned out generations of world-renowned soloists. Among the best known are violinists David Oistrakh and Gidon Kremer; cellist Mstislav Rostropovich; pianists Vladimir Horowitz, Sviatoslav Richter, and Emil Gilels; and vocalists Fyodor Shalyapin, Galina Vishnevskaya, Anna Netrebko and Dmitry Hvorostovsky. 245

During the early 20th century, Russian ballet dancers Anna Pavlova and Vaslav Nijinsky rose to fame, and impresario Sergei Diaghilev and his Ballets Russes' travels abroad profoundly influenced the development of dance worldwide. 246 Soviet ballet preserved the perfected 19th century traditions, 247 and the Soviet Union's choreography schools produced one internationaly famous star after another, including Maya Plisetskaya, Rudolf Nureyev, and Mikhail Baryshnikov. The Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow and the Mariinsky in Saint Petersburg remain famous throughout the world. 248

Literature and philosophy

Referencess: Russian literature, Russian philosophy, Russian poets, Russian playwrights, and Russian novelists
/
Alexander Pushkin (1799–1837), the greatest Russian poet and founder of modern Russian literature. The author of Ruslan and Ludmila and Eugene Onegin .
/
Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821–1881), writer, one of the greatest psychologists in world literature. 249 The author of Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov .
/
Anton Chekhov (1860–1904) is famous for his plays and short stories. The author of The Seagull and The Cherry Orchard .
/
Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910), novelist and philosopher. The author of War and Peace and Anna Karenina .
Russian literature is considered to be among the most influential and developed in the world, contributing many of the world's most famous literary works. 250 Russia's literary history dates back to the 10th century; in the 18th century its development was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis Fonvizin, and by the early 19th century a modern native tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers of all time. This period and the Golden Age of Russian Poetry began with Alexander Pushkin, considered to be the founder of modern Russian literature and often described as the "Russian Shakespeare" . 251

It continued in the 19th century with the poetry of Mikhail Lermontov and Nikolay Nekrasov, dramas of Aleksandr Ostrovsky and Anton Chekhov, and the prose of Nikolai Gogol, Ivan Turgenev, Leo Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin, Ivan Goncharov, Aleksey Pisemsky and Nikolai Leskov. Tolstoy and Dostoevsky in particular were titanic figures to the point that many literary critics have described one or the other as the greatest novelist ever. 252 253

By the 1880s Russian literature had begun to change. The age of the great novelists was over and short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres of Russian literature for the next several decades which became known as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry. Previously dominated by realism, Russian literature came under strong influence of Symbolism in the years between 1893 and 1914. Leading writers of this age include Valery Bryusov, Andrei Bely, Vyacheslav Ivanov, Aleksandr Blok, Nikolay Gumilev, Dmitry Merezhkovsky, Fyodor Sologub, Anna Akhmatova, Osip Mandelstam, Marina Tsvetaeva, Leonid Andreyev, Ivan Bunin, and Maxim Gorky.

Some Russian writers, like Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky, are known also as philosophers, while many more authors are known primarily for their philosophical works. Russian philosophy blossomed since the 19th century, when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers, advocating Russia's following the Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles, insisting on developing Russia as unique civilization.

The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev, the early founders of eurasianism. In its further development, Russian philosophy was always marked by deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; cosmos and religion were other primary subjects. Notable philosopheres of the late 19th and early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev, Sergei Bulgakov, Pavel Florensky and Vladimir Vernadsky. In the 20th century Russian philosophy became dominated by Marxism.

Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing civil war, Russian cultural life was left in chaos. Some prominent writers and philosophers, like Ivan Bunin, Vladimir Nabokov, Lev Shestov, Isaiah Berlin, Alexandre Kojève left the country, while a new generation of talented writers joined together in different organizations with the aim of creating a new and distinctive working-class culture appropriate for the new state, the Soviet Union.

Throughout the 1920s writers enjoyed broad tolerance. In the 1930s censorship over literature was tightened in line with Joseph Stalin's policy of socialist realism. After his death the restrictions on literature were eased, and by the 1970s and 1980s, writers were increasingly ignoring the official guidelines. The leading authors of the Soviet era included Yevgeny Zamiatin, Isaac Babel, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Ilf and Petrov, Yury Olesha, Mikhail Bulgakov, Boris Pasternak, Mikhail Sholokhov, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Yevgeny Yevtushenko, and Andrey Voznesensky.

Cinema, animation and media

Referencess: Cinema of Russia, Russian animation, Radio Day, and Television in Russia
/
The world's oldest film school, the Russian State Institute of Cinematography in Moscow.
While in the industrialized nations of the West, motion pictures had first been accepted as a form of cheap recreation and leisure for the working class, Russian filmmaking came to prominence following the 1917 revolution when it explored editing as the primary mode of cinematic expression. 254 Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention in the period immediately following the 1917, resulting in world-renowned films such as Battleship Potemkin . 255 Soviet-era filmmakers, most notably Sergei Eisenstein and Andrei Tarkovsky, would become some of the world's most innovative and influential directors.

Eisenstein was a student of filmmaker and theorist Lev Kuleshov, who developed the groundbreaking Soviet montage theory of film editing at the world's first film school, the All-Union Institute of Cinematography. Dziga Vertov, whose kino-glaz (“film-eye”) theory—that the camera, like the human eye, is best used to explore real life—had a huge impact on the development of documentary film making and cinema realism. In 1932, Stalin made socialist realism the state policy; this somewhat limited creativity, however many Soviet films in this style were artistically successful, like Chapaev , The Cranes Are Flying , and Ballad of a Soldier . 255

1960s and 1970s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in the Soviet cinema. Eldar Ryazanov's and Leonid Gaidai's comedies of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catch phrases still in use today. In 1961–1968 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Oscar-winning film adaptation of Tolstoy's epic War and Peace , which was the most expensive film ever made. 256 In 1969, Vladimir Motyl's White Sun of the Desert was released, a very popular film in a genre known as 'osterns'; the film is traditionally watched by cosmonauts before any trip into space. 257

/
The famous Odessa Steps scene from the The Battleship Potemkin , 1925.
Russia also has a long and rich tradition of animation, which started already in the late Russian Empire times. Most of Russia's cartoon production for cinema and television was created during Soviet times, when Soyuzmultfilm studio was the largest animation producer. Soviet animators developed a great and unmatched variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetic styles, with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano, Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarskiy. Soviet cartoons are still a source for many popular catch phrases, while such cartoon heroes as Russian-style Winnie-the-Pooh, cute little Cheburashka, Wolf and Hare from Nu, Pogodi! being iconic images in Russia and many surrounding countries.

The late 1980s and 1990s were a period of crisis in Russian cinema and animation. Although Russian filmmakers became free to express themselves, state subsidies were drastically reduced, resulting in fewer films produced. The early years of the 21st century have brought increased viewership and subsequent prosperity to the industry on the back of the economy's rapid development, and production levels are already higher than in Britain and Germany. 258 Russia's total box-office revenue in 2007 was $565 million, up 37% from the previous year 259 (by comparison, in 1996 revenues stood at $6 million). 258 Russian cinema continues to receive international recognition. Russian Ark (2002) was the first feature film ever to be shot in a single take. The traditions of Soviet animation were developed in the past decade by such directors as Aleksandr Petrov and studios like Melnitsa.

Russia was among the first countries to introduce radioand television. Due to the enormous size of the country Russia leads in the number of TV broadcast stations and repeaters. There were few channels in the Soviet time, but in the past two decades many new state-run and private-owned radio stations and TV channels appeared. In 2005 a state-run English languageRussia Today TV started broadcasting, and its Arabic version Rusiya Al-Yaum was launched in 2007.

Modern culture

Referencess: Russian rock, Russian pop, and Runet
/
Heavy metal band Aria is one of the leading Russian rock performers.
Since the late Soviet times Russia has experienced another wave of Western cultural influence, which led to the development of many previously unknown phenomena in the Russian culture. Russia easily has adopted a number of cultural techniques, while providing its own content.

The most vivid example, perhaps, is the Russian rock music, which takes its roots both in the Western rock and roll and heavy metal, and in traditions of the Russian bards of Soviet era, like Vladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava. Saint-Petersburg (former Leningrad), Yekaterinburg and Omsk became the main centers of development of the rock music. Popular Russian rock groups include Mashina Vremeni, DDT, Aquarium, Alisa, Kino, Nautilus Pompilius, Aria, Grazhdanskaya Oborona, Splean and Korol i Shut.

At the same time Russian pop music developed from what was known in the Soviet times as estrada into full-fledged industry, with some performers gaining international recognition, like t.A.T.u. in the West or Vitas in China. Lubeh is a very popular and unique group, harmoniously combining the elements of Western rock and roll, traditional Russian folk music and military bard music, featuring a number of rock attributes but often performing on the pop scenes.

In the past decades many new sporting activities came into Russia, including cheerleading, auto racing, snowboarding and skateboarding. Many subcultures became popular among Russian youth, like rappers, Goths, Emo, Anime fans and Live action role-playing gamers. Russian Internet, or Runet, has seen a rapid development in the last years and the rise of a variety of Internet subcultures.

Sports

References: Sport in Russia
/
Bear cub Misha, the mascot, at the closing ceremony of 1980 Summer Olympics.
/
Maria Sharapova, the world's highest paid female athlete. 260
Russians have been successful at a number of sports and consistently finish in the top rankings at the Olympic Games and in other international competitions. Combining the total medals of Soviet Union and Russia, the country is second among all nations by number of gold medals both at the Summer Olympics and at the Winter Olympics .

During the Soviet era, the national Olympic team placed first in the total number of medals won at 14 of its 18 appearances; with these performances, the USSR was the dominant Olympic power of its era. Since the 1952 Olympic Games, Soviet and later Russian athletes have always been in the top three for the number of gold medals collected at the Summer Olympics.

Soviet gymnasts, track-and-field athletes, weight lifters, wrestlers, boxers, fencers, shooters, chess players, cross country skiers, biathletes, speed skaters and figure skaters were consistently among the best in the world, along with Soviet basketball, handball, volleyball and ice hockey players. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russian athletes have continued to dominate international competitions. The 1980 Summer Olympic Games were held in Moscow while the 2014 Winter Olympics will be hosted by Sochi.

As the Soviet Union, Russia was traditionally very strong in basketball, winning various Olympic tournaments, World Championships and Eurobasket. As of 2009 they have various players in the NBA, notably Utah Jazz forward Andrei Kirilenko, and are considered as a worldwide basketball force. In 2007, Russia defeated world champions Spain to win Eurobasket 2007. Russian basketball clubs such as PBC CSKA Moscow (2006 and 2008 Euroleague Champions) have also had great success in European competitions such as the Euroleague and the ULEB Cup.

/
Russia's president Dmitry Medvedev with Russia men's national ice hockey team.
Although ice hockey was only introduced during the Soviet era, the national team soon dominated the sport internationaly, winning gold at almost all the Olympics and World Championships they contested. Russian players Valery Kharlamov, Sergey Makarov, Vyacheslav Fetisov and Vladislav Tretiak hold 4 of 6 positions in the IIHF Team of the Century . 261 As with some other sports, the Russian ice hockey programme suffered after the breakup of the Soviet Union with Russia enduring a 15 year gold medal drought. At that time many prominent Russian players made their career in the NHL.

In recent years Russia has reemerged as a hockey superpower, winning back to back gold medals in the 2008 and 2009 World Championships, and overtaking team Canada as the top ranked ice hockey team in the world. 262 The KHL (Kontinental Hockey League) was founded in 2008 as a successor to the Russian Superleague. It is seen as a rival to the NHL and is ranked the top hockey league in Europe as of 2009. 263 Bandy, known in Russian as "hockey with a ball", is another traditionally popular ice sport, with national league games averaging around 3500 spectators. 264 The Soviet Union won all the Bandy World Championships from 1957 to 1979.

During the Soviet period, Russia was also a competitive footballing nation. Despite having fantastic players, the USSR never really managed to assert itself as one of the major forces of international football, although its teams won various championships (such as Euro 1960) and reached numerous finals (such as Euro 1988). Along with ice hockey and basketball, football is one of the most popular sports in modern Russia. In recent years, Russian football, which downgraded in 1990-s, has experienced a revival. Russian clubs (such as CSKA Moscow, Zenit St Petersburg, Lokomotiv Moscow, and Spartak Moscow) are becoming increasingly successful on the European stage (CSKA and Zenit winning the UEFA Cup in 2005 and 2008 respectively). The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro 2008, losing only to eventual champions Spain.

Soviet Union dominated the sport of gymnastics for many years, with such athletes as Larisa Latynina, who currently holds a record of most Olympic medals won per person and most gold Olympic medals won by a woman. Today, Russia is leading in rhythmic gymnastics with such stars as Alina Kabayeva, Irina Tschaschina and Yevgeniya Kanayeva. Russian synchronized swimming is the best in the world, with almost all gold medals having been swept by Russians at Olympics and World Championships for more than a decade.

Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia; in the 1960s, the Soviet Union rose to become a dominant power in figure skating, especially in pair skating and ice dancing, and at every Winter Olympics from 1964 until 2006, a Soviet or Russian pair has won gold, often considered the longest winning streak in modern sports history. Since the end of the Soviet era, tennis has grown in popularity and Russia has produced a number of famous tennis players. Chess is also a widely popular pastime; from 1927, Soviet and Russian chess grandmasters have held the world championship almost continuously.

National holidays and symbols

Referencess: Public holidays in Russia, Russian flag, Russian coat of arms, Russian anthem, Russian Bear, and Mother Russia
/
Ded Moroz (Russian Santa) at his residence in Veliky Ustyug.
/
2005 Victory Day (9 May) parade on Moscow's Red Square.
There are seven public holidays in Russia. The New Year is the first in calendar and in popularity. Russian New Year traditions resemble those of the Western Christmas, with New Year Trees and gifts, and Ded Moroz (Father Frost) playing the same role as Santa. Rozhdestvo (Orthodox Christmas) falls on 7 January, because Russian Orthodox Church still follows the Julian (old style) calendar and all Orthodox holidays are 13 days after Catholic ones. Another two major Christian holidays are Paskha (Easter) and Troitsa (Trinity), but there is no need to recognize them as public holidays since they are always celebrated on Sunday. Kurban Bayram and Uraza Bayram are widely celebrated by Russian Muslims.

Further Russian public holidays include Defender of the Fatherland Day (23 February), which honors Russian men, especially those serving in the army; International Women's Day (8 March), which combines the traditions of Mother's Day and Valentine's Day; International Workers' Day (1 May), now renamed Spring and Labor Day ; Victory Day (9 May); Russia Day (12 June); and Unity Day (4 November), commemorating the popular uprising which expelled the Polish-Lithuanian occupation force from Moscow in 1612. The latter is a replacement for the old Soviet holiday celebrating October Revolution of 1917 (again, it was falling on November because of the difference of calendars). Fireworks and outdoor concerts are common features of all Russian public holidays.

Victory Day is the second popular holiday in Russia, it commemorates the victory over Nazi Germany in World War II and is widely celebrated throughout the country. A huge military parade, hosted by the President of the Russian Federation, is annually organized in Moscow on Red Square. Similar parades are organized in all major Russian cities and the cities with the status Hero city or City of Military Glory .

Other popular holidays, which are not public, include Old New Year (New Year according to Julian Calendar on 14 January), Tatiana Day (day of Russian students on 25 January), Maslenitsa (an old pagan holiday a week before the Great Lent), Cosmonautics Day (a day of Yury Gagarin's first ever human trip into space on 12 April), Ivan Kupala Day (another pagan Slavic holiday on 7 July) and Peter and Fevronia Day (taking place on 8 July and being the Russian analogue of Valentine's Day, which focuses, however, on the family love and fidelity). On different days in June there are major celebrations of the end of the school year, when graduates from schools and universities traditionally swim in the city fountains; the local varieties of these public events include Scarlet Sails tradition in Saint Petersburg.

/
Russian football fans with a gigantic Go Russia! banner, featuring Russian Bear on the background of Russian flag.
/
Scarlet Sails celebration on the Neva river in Saint Petersburg.
State symbols of Russia include the Byzantinedouble-headed eagle, combined with St. George of Moscow in the Russian coat of arms; these symbols date from the Grand Duchy of Moscow time. Russian flag appeared in the late Tsardom of Russia period and became widely used since Russian Empire times. Russian anthem shares its music with the Soviet Anthem, though not the lyrics (many Russians of older generations just don't know the new lyrics and sing the old ones).

The Russian imperialmotto God is with us and the Soviet motto Proletarians of all countries, unite! are now obsolete and no new motto has been officially introduced to replace them. The hammer and sickle and the full Soviet coat of arms are still widely seen in Russian cities as a part of old architectural decorations. The Soviet Red Stars are also encountered, often on military equipment and war memorials. The Red Banner continues to be honored, especially the Banner of Victory of 1945.

Matryoshka doll is a recognizable symbol of Russia, while the towers of Moscow Kremlin and Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow are main Russia's architectural symbols. Cheburashka is a mascot of Russian national Olympic team. Mary, Saint Nicholas, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint Alexander Nevsky, Saint Sergius of Radonezh and Saint Seraphim of Sarov are Russia's patron saints.

Chamomile is a flower that Russians often associate with their Motherland, while birch is a national tree. Russian bear is an animal symbol and national personification of Russia, though this image has Western origin and Russians themselves have accepted it fairly recently. The native Russian national personification is Mother Russia, sometimes called Mother Motherland.

Tourism

References: Tourism in Russia
/
Grand Cascade in Peterhof, nicknamed Russian Versaille , a popular tourist destination in Saint Petersburg.
/
Seaside arbour in Sochi, a subtropical Russian resort city and the capital of 2014 Winter Olympics.
Tourism in Russia has seen rapid growth since the late Soviet times, first inner tourism and then international tourism as well. Rich cultural heritage and great natural variety place Russia among the most popular tourist destinations in the world. The country contains 23 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, while many more are on UNESCO's tentative lists. 265 Major tourist routes in Russia include a travel around the Golden Ring of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers like Volga, and long journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway.

Most popular tourist destinations in Russia are Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the current and the former capitals of the country and great cultural centers, recognized as World Cities. Moscow and Saint Petersburg feature such world-renown museums as Tretyakov Gallery and Hermitage, famous theaters like Bolshoi and Mariinsky, ornate churches like Saint Basil's Cathedral, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Saint Isaac's Cathedral and Church of the Savior on Blood, impressive fortifications like Moscow Kremlin and Peter and Paul Fortress, beautiful squares like Red Square and Palace Square, and busy streets like Tverskaya and Nevsky Prospect.

Rich palaces and parks of extreme beauty are found in the former imperial residences in suburbs of Moscow (Kolomenskoye, Tsaritsyno) and Saint Petersburg (Peterhof, Strelna, Oranienbaum, Gatchina, Pavlovsk, Tsarskoye Selo). Moscow contains a great variety of impressive Soviet era buildings along with modern scyscrapers, while Saint Petersburg, nicknamed Venice of the North , boasts of its classical architecture, many rivers, channels and bridges.

/
Kazan Kremlin, as well as Kazan in the whole, attracts by a rare combination of ChristianOrthodox and Muslim styles
Kazan, the capital of Tatarstan, shows a unique mix of ChristianRussian and MuslimTatar cultures. The city has registered a brand The Third Capital of Russia , though a number of other major Russian cities compete for this status, like Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod, all being major cultural centers with rich history and prominent architecture.

Veliky Novgorod, Pskov and the cities of Golden Ring (Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma and others) have at best preserved the architecture and the spirit of ancient and medieval Rus', and also are among the main tourist destinations. Many old fortifications (typically Kremlins), monasteries and churches are scattered throughout Russia, forming its unique cultural landscape both in big cities and in remote areas.

/
Mount Belukha, the highest point of Altai and Siberia, a popular alpinist site.
Typical Russian souvenirs include matryoshka doll and other handicraft, samovars for water heating, ushanka and papaha warm hats, fur clothes and other stuff. Russian vodka and caviar are among the food that attracts foreigners, along with honey, blini, pelmeni, borsch and other products and dishes. Diverse regions and ethnic cultures of Russia offer many more different food and souvenirs, and show a great variety of traditions, like Russian banya, Tatar Sabantuy, or Siberian shamanist rituals.
/
Matryoshka doll taken apart
The warm subtropical Black Sea coast of Russia is the site for a number of popular sea resorts, like Sochi, known for its beaches and wonderful nature. The mountains of the Northern Caucasus contain popular ski resorts, including Dombay.

The most famous natural tourist destination in Russia is lake Baikal, named the Blue Eye of Siberia . This unique lake, oldest and deepest in the world, has crystal-clean waters and is surrounded by taiga-covered mountains. Other popular natural destinations include Kamchatka with its volcanoes and geysers, Karelia with its many lakes and granite rocks, Altai with its snowy mountains and Tyva with its wild steppes.

v - >d - - e
Russian souvenirs, arts and crafts
Matryoshka
Samovar - Handicrafts -
Gorodets painting - Gzhel
Khokhloma
Russian lacquer art ( Fedoskino miniature
Kholuy miniature
Mstyora miniature
Palekh miniature) - Russian icons
Zhostovo painting
Ushanka
Balalaika
Tableware -
Table-glass - Podstakannik
Russian porcelain ( Dulyovo porcelain ) - Samovar
Clothing -
Budenovka - Kokoshnik
Kosovorotka
Lapti
Orenburg shawl
Papakhi
Peaked cap
Sailor cap
Sarafan
Telnyashka
Ushanka
Valenki
Musical
instruments
-
Balalaika - Garmon
Russian guitar
Musical spoons
Treshchotka
Toys -
Bird of Happiness - Cheburashka
Dymkovo toys
Matryoshka doll
Petrushka
Other -
Fabergé egg - Shashka
Tula gingerbread
Vodka
v - >d - - e
RussiaWorld Heritage Sites in Russia by federal district
Solovetsky Monastery
Saint Isaac's Cathedral, Saint Petersburg
Cathedral of St. Sophia, Veliky Novgorod
Mountains of the Western Caucasus near Dombay, Karachay-Cherkessia
A view from the Derbent Fortress towards the Caspian Sea
Central -
Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye - Moscow Kremlin and Red Square
Novodevichy Convent
Trinity Sergius Lavra
White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal
Historic Centre of Yaroslavl
Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir
Red Square, Moscow
Annunciation Cathedral in the Kazan Kremlin
Shaman Stone of the Olkhon Island on Lake Baikal
Koryaksky Volcano above Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Southern -
Western Caucasus
Northwestern -
Curonian Spit 1 - Ferapontov Monastery
Kizhi Pogost
Virgin Komi Forests
Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings
Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Surroundings
Solovetsky Islands
Struve Geodetic Arc 2
Far Eastern -
Volcanoes of Kamchatka - Central Sikhote-Alin
Wrangel Island
Siberian -
Golden Mountains of Altai - Lake Baikal
Uvs Nuur Basin 3
Volga -
Kazan Kremlin
North Caucasian -
Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent
1 Shared with Lithuania
2 Shared with nine other countries
3 Shared with Mongolia
International rankings
References: International rankings of Russia
See also
Flag of Russia.svg - Russia portal
References: Outline of Russia
Intermediate Region
List of Russia-related topics
List of statistically superlative countries
Timeline of Russian history
Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records
References
abThe Russian federation: general characteristics . http://www.gks.ru/scripts/free/1c.exe?XXXX09F.2.1/010000R .
abFederal State Statistics Service of Russia . http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2010/popul10-Pr.xls .
Russian Census of 2002. Federal State Statistics Service . http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_01.htm .
abcdRussia. International Monetary Fund . http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=922&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=61&pr.y=10 .
Human Development Report 2009. The United Nations.
Cyrillic Domain Names Become Operational On The Internet. Radio Free Europe . http://www.rferl.org/content/Cyrillic_Domain_Names_Become_Operational_On_The_Internet/2041131.html .
The Constitution of the Russian Federation. (Article 1) . http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-02.htm .
The CIA World Fact Book, "Russia" . /Phones/cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rs.html .
Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. "Russia". "Russia" . http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569000_4/Russia.html .
First Post; Beware Russia Energy Superpower, 12 October 2006. Thefirstpost.co.uk. 2006-10-16 . http://www.thefirstpost.co.uk/4883,opinion,beware-russia-energy-superpower .
CNN, Russia; A superpower rises again by Simon Hooper, December 2006
CNN; Eye on Russia: Russia's resurgence by Matthew Chance, June 2007
ab Library of Congress. Topography and drainage . http://countrystudies.us/russia/23.htm .
abRussia. Encyclopedia Britannica . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/513251/Russia .
abc excerpted from Glenn E. Curtis (ed.) (1998). Russia: A Country Study: Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods. Washington, DC: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress . http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Kievan.html .
Superpower politics: change in the United States and the Soviet Union Books.Google
abWeinberg, G.L. (1995). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II . Cambridge University Press. p. 264. ISBN0521558794.
ab Osbourne, Andrew, World leaders gather as Russia remembers. The Age
ab Rozhnov, Konstantin, Who won World War II?. BBC. Russian historian Valentin Falin
abCountry Profile: Russia. Foreign & Commonwealth Office of the United Kingdom . http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/about-the-fco/country-profiles/europe/russia/ .
abStatus of Nuclear Powers and Their Nuclear Capabilities. Federation of American Scientists . http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/summary.htm .
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Russian Federation . http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/ru .
The World Network of Biosphere Reserves — UNESCO. Russian Federation . http://www.unesco.org/mab/BRs/EurBRlist.shtml .
Fish Industry of Russia — Production, Trade, Markets and Investment. Eurofish, Copenhagen, Denmark. August 2006. p. 211 . http://www.eurofish.dk/indexSub.php?id=3308&easysitestatid=255998662 .
Oil prices drive the cost of food. RIA Novosti . http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20080222/99853566.html
abcdefgh The World Factbook. CIA. Central Intelligence Agency . /Phones/cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rs.html .
Lake Baikal—A Touchstone for Global Change and Rift Studies. United States Geological Survey . http://marine.usgs.gov/fact-sheets/baikal/
Lake Baikal. UNESCO World Heritage Centre . http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/754 .
Angara River. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007 . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/24432/Angara-River
abClimate. Library Of Congress . http://countrystudies.us/russia/24.htm .
Drozdov, V. A. et al. (1992). "Ecological and Geographical Characteristics of the Coastal Zone of the Black Sea". GeoJournal (27.2, pp. 169–178: Springer Netherlands) 27 : 169. doi:10.1007/BF00717701.
Walsh, NP (2003-09-19). It's Europe's lungs and home to many rare species. But to Russia it's £100bn of wood. London: Guardian (UK) . http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/sep/19/environment.russia
Irina A. Merzliakova (1997-11-01). list of animals of Red Data Book of Russian Federation (1 November 1997). Enrin.grida.no . http://enrin.grida.no/biodiv/biodiv/national/russia/state/00440.htm .
abBelinskij A, Härke, H (1999). The 'Princess' of Ipatovo. Archeology 52 (2) . http://cat.he.net/~archaeol/9903/newsbriefs/ipatovo.html .
Drews, Robert (2004). Early Riders: The beginnings of mounted warfare in Asia and Europe . New York: Routledge. p. 50. ISBN0415326249.
Koryakova, L.. Sintashta-Arkaim Culture. The Center for the Study of the Eurasian Nomads (CSEN) . http://www.csen.org/koryakova2/Korya.Sin.Ark.html .
1998 NOVA documentary: "Ice Mummies: Siberian Ice Maiden". Transcript . http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/2517siberian.html .
Jacobson, E. (1995). The Art of the Scythians: The Interpenetration of Cultures at the Edge of the Hellenic World . Brill. p. 38. ISBN9004098569.
Tsetskhladze, G.R. (1998). The Greek Colonisation of the Black Sea Area: Historical Interpretation of Archaeology . F. Steiner. p. 48. ISBN3515073027.
Turchin, P. (2003). Historical Dynamics: Why States Rise and Fall . Princeton University Press. pp. 185–186. ISBN0691116695.
Christian, D. (1998). A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia . Blackwell Publishing. pp. 286–288. ISBN0631208143.
For a discussion of the origins of Slavs, see Barford, P.M. (2001). The Early Slavs . Cornell University Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN0801439779.
abChristian, D. (1998). A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia . Blackwell Publishing. pp. 6–7.
Paszkiewicz, H.K. (1963). The Making of the Russian Nation . Darton, Longman & Todd. p. 262.
McKitterick, R. (1995-06-17). The New Cambridge Medieval History . Cambridge University Press. p. 497. ISBN0521364477.
Mongaĭt, A.L. (1959). Archeology in the U.S.S.R. . Foreign Languages Publishing House. p. 335.
See, for instance,. Viking (Varangian) Oleg. Encyclopaedia Britannica . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/427466/Oleg .
Obolensky, D. (1994). Byzantium and the Slavs . St Vladimir's Seminary Press. p. 42. ISBN088141008X.
Thompson, J.W.; Johnson, E.N. (1937). An Introduction to Medieval Europe, 300–1500 . W. W. Norton & Co.. p. 268. ISBN0415346991.
Christian, D. (1998). A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia . Blackwell Publishing. p. 343. ISBN0631208143.
Ukraine: Security Assistance. U.S. Department of State . http://www.state.gov/t/pm/64851.htm .
Klyuchevsky, V. (1987). The course of the Russian history. 1 . Myslʹ. ISBN5244000721 . http://www.kulichki.com/inkwell/text/special/history/kluch/kluch16.htm .
Hamm, M.F. (1995). Kiev: A Portrait, 1800–1917 . Princeton University Press. ISBN0691025851.
The Destruction of Kiev
History of Russia from Early Slavs history and Kievan Rus to Romanovs dynasty. Parallelsixty.com . http://www.parallelsixty.com/history-russia.shtml .
Рыбаков, Б. А. (1948). Ремесло Древней Руси . pp. 525–533,780–781.
The history of banya and sauna (Russian
" Black Death ". Joseph Patrick Byrne (2004). p.62. ISBN 0313324921
May, T.. Khanate of the Golden Horde . http://www.accd.edu/sac/history/keller/Mongols/states3.html .
Solovyov, S. (2001). History of Russia from the Earliest Times . 6 . AST. pp. 562–604. ISBN5170021429.
Skrynnikov, R. (1981). Ivan the Terrible . Academic Intl Pr. p. 219. ISBN0875690394.
Solovyov, S. (2001). History of Russia from the Earliest Times . 6 . AST. pp. 751–908. ISBN5170021429.
"The Crimean Tatars and their Russian-Captive Slaves" (PDF). Eizo Matsuki, Mediterranean Studies Group at Hitotsubashi University.
Solovyov, S. (2001). History of Russia from the Earliest Times . 6 . AST. pp. 751–809. ISBN5170021429.
"Nighttime temperatures in all summer months, often below freezing, wrecked crops" Borisenkov E, Pasetski V.. The thousand-year annals of the extreme meteorological phenomena . p. 190. ISBN5244002120.
Solovyov, S. (2001). History of Russia from the Earliest Times . 7 . AST. pp. 461–568. ISBN5170021429.
Solovyov, S. (2001). History of Russia from the Earliest Times. 9, ch.1 . AST. ISBN5170021429 . http://militera.lib.ru/common/solovyev1/09_01.html .
Solovyov, S. (2001). History of Russia from the Earliest Times. 15, ch.1 . AST . http://militera.lib.ru/common/solovyev1/15_01.html .
Ruling the Empire. Library of Congress . http://countrystudies.us/russia/5.htm .
"Transformation of Russia in the Nineteenth Century". Library of Congress Country Studies.
"The Dimension of Famine" (PDF). Alan Macfarlane.
" The forgotten: Catholics of the Soviet empire from Lenin through Stalin ". Christopher Lawrence Zugger (2001). Syracuse University Press. p.459. ISBN 0815606796
" Transactions of the American Philosophical Society ". American Philosophical Society, James E. Hassell (1991). p.3. ISBN 087169817X
Famine in Russia: the hidden horrors of 1921, International Committee of the Red Cross
"Purge trials (Soviet history)". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Getty, Rittersporn, Zemskov. Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-War Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence. The American Historical Review, Vol. 98, No. 4 (Oct., 1993).
According to Conquest, between 1939 and 1953, there was, in the work camps, a 10% death rate per year, rising to 20% in 1938. Robert Conquest in Victims of Stalinism: A Comment. Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 49, No. 7 (Nov., 1997), pp. 1317–1319 states:"We are all inclined to accept the Zemskov totals (even if not as complete) with their 14 million intake to Gulag 'camps' alone, to which must be added 4–5 million going to Gulag 'colonies', to say nothing of the 3.5 million already in, or sent to, 'labour settlements'. However taken, these are surely 'high' figures."
R.W. Davies, S.G. Wheatcroft (2004). The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931–33 . pp. 401. For a review, see Davies & Weatcroft, 2004 (PDF). Warwick . http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/staff/faculty/harrison/reviews/davies-wheatcroft2004.pdf .
World War II. Encyclopædia Britannica . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II .
The Allies' first decisive successes > Stalingrad and the German retreat, summer 1942 – February 1943. Encyclopedia Britannica . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II .
"The Legacy of the Siege of Leningrad, 1941–1995". Cambridge University Press.
Erlikman, V. (2004). Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik . Moskva: Russkai︠a︡ panorama. Note: Estimates for Soviet World War II casualties vary between sources. ISBN5931651071.
Reconstruction and Cold War. Library of Congress . http://countrystudies.us/russia/12.htm .
Great Escapes from the Gulag. TIME. 1978-06-05 . http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,916205-2,00.html .
1990 CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency . http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact90/world12.txt .
Russia Unforeseen Results of Reform. The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook . http://www.photius.com/countries/russia/economy/russia_economy_unforeseen_results_o~1315.html .
abcRussian Federation (PDF). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) . http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/7/50/2452793.pdf .
Russia: Economic Conditions in Mid-1996. Library of Congress . http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+ru0119) .
Melvin Fagen. Russia: Shock Therapy Isn't the Way to Promote Democracy. International Herald Tribune . http://www.iht.com/articles/1992/05/12/edme.php .
Sciolino, E. (1993-12-21). U.S. is abandoning 'shock therapy' for the Russians. The New York Times . http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CEED91F39F932A15751C1A965958260 .
abBranko Milanovic (1998). Income, Inequality, and Poverty During the Transformation from Planned to Market Economy . The World Bank. pp. 186–189.
Russia pays off USSR’s entire debt, sets to become crediting country. Pravda.ru . http://english.pravda.ru/russia/economics/22-08-2006/84038-paris-club-0 .
Russia: Clawing Its Way Back to Life (int'l edition). BusinessWeek . http://www.businessweek.com/1999/99_48/b3657252.htm .
Sokolov, V. (Spring 2004). From Guns to Briefcases: The Evolution of Russian Organized Crime ( dead link ] ). World Policy Journal XXI (1) . http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/articles/wpj04-1/sokolov.htm .
Aslund A. Russia's Capitalist Revolution (PDF) . http://www.iie.com/publications/papers/aslund0108.pdf .
Treisman, D. Is Russia's Experiment with Democracy Over?. UCLA International Institute . http://www.international.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=16294 .
Stone, N (2007-12-04). No wonder they like Putin. London: The Times . http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/columnists/guest_contributors/article2994651.ece .
The Constitution of the Russian Federation. (Article 80, §1) . http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-05.htm .
The Constitution of the Russian Federation. (Article 110, §1) . http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-07.htm .
The Constitution of the Russian Federation. (Article 94) . http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-06.htm .
The Constitution of the Russian Federation. (Article 19, §1) . http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-03.htm
The Constitution of the Russian Federation. (Article 120, §1) . http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-08.htm
The Constitution of the Russian Federation. (Article 123, §1) . http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-08.htm
The Constitution of the Russian Federation. (Article 81, §3) . http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-05.htm
The Constitution of the Russian Federation. (Article 95, §3) . http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-06.htm
Report by Mr. Alvaro Gil-Robles on his Visits to the Russian Federation
abAmnesty International report on Russia. En.wikipedia.org . http://en.wikipedia.org/Europe/wi=Russia .
ab Human Rights Watch on Russia and Chechnya HTW.org
Human Rights House http://www.humanrightshouse.org/
Annual report Russia. Freedom House. 2004-05-10 . http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2009&country=7689 .
Reporters Without Borders – 2009 World Report – Russia dead link ]
In Russian: МИД России назвал доклад Freedom House "дубиной" в руках Вашингтона. Newsru.com . http://www.newsru.com/russia/21jun2006/fh.html
In Russian: Правозащитники обиделись на Freedom House. Newizv.ru . http://www.newizv.ru/news/2007-02-02/62486/&grade=3 .
Based on actual count of countries listed Note about the diplomatic relations of Russia with foreign states. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia . http://www.mid.ru/nsite-sv.nsf/4d82d693c900b211c325756300358f4c/48c43a5acd47994ac32575760040ff1d?OpenDocument . Only those listed explicitly as "Embassy of Russia" are included in the embassy count.
Kosachev. K. Russian Foreign Policy Vertical. Russia In Global Affairs
(Russian) Interview of official Ambassador of Russian Foreign Ministry on relations with the EU. RIA Novosti . http://rian.ru/politics/20041125/743119.html .
NATO-Russia relations. NATO . nato.int issues .
Chapter 2—Investing In Russian Defense Conversion: Obstacles and Opportunities. Federation of American Scientists . fas.org/nuke/guide/russia/industry/docs/rus95/rdbd4ch2.htm .
abOverview of the major Asian Powers. International Institute for Strategic Studies : 31 . csis.org/media/csis/pubs/060626_asia_balance_powers.pdf .
abUS drives world military spending to record high. Australian Broadcasting Corporation . http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200606/s1661277.htm .
abRussia arms exports could exceed $7 bln in 2007 – Ivanov. RIA Novosti . http://en.rian.ru/russia/20071224/93979601.html
Russia: Assessment, Adam Baltin Interview, Opinion Poll on State of Armed Forces . FBIS: Informatsionno-Analiticheskoye Agentstvo Marketing i Konsalting.
The top 10 military spenders, 2008". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute figures.
Rice: Russia's Military Moves 'a Problem'. ABC News . abcnews.go.com/WN/story?id=3728855
World Wide Military Expenditures. Global Security . http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/spending.htm .
Harding, Luke (2007-02-09). Big rise in Russian military spending raises fears of new challenge to west. London: Guardian . http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/feb/09/russia.usa .
Pukhov, R. (2009). Serdyukov Cleans Up the Arbat. Moscow Defense Brief (Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies) (#1 (15) / 2009) . http://mdb.cast.ru/mdb/1-2008/item2/article1/ .
Russian Census of 2002. 4.1. National composition of population . Federal State Statistics Service . http://www.perepis2002.ru/index.html?id=87 .
abcdeDemographics. Federal State Statistics Service . http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/b09_00/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d01/7-0.htm .
1 June 2007: A great number of children in Russia remain highly vulnerable. United Nations Children's Fund . http://www.unicef.org/russia/media_6762.html .
See List of countries by population density
Resident population. Federal State Statistics Service . http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2007/b07_12/05-01.htm .
abDemography. Federal State Statistics Service . http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/b08_00/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d01/7-0.htm .
Russia cracking down on illegal migrants. International Herald Tribune. 15 January 2007 . http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/01/15/news/migrate.php .
Ethnic groups in Russia, 2002 census, Demoscope Weekly .
Putin tries to lure millions of Russian expats home". Times Online. February 9, 2006.
Russians left behind in Central Asia", BBC News, 23 November 2005.
Migrant resettlement in the Russian federation: reconstructing 'homes' and 'homelands' ". Moya Flynn. (1994). p.15. ISBN 1843311178
Demographics. Library of Congress . http://countrystudies.us/russia/29.htm .
Russia's population down 0.17% in 2007 to 142 mln. RIA Novosti . http://en.rian.ru/russia/20080221/99803097.html .
The World Factbook. Rank Order — Birth rate. Central Intelligence Agency . /Phones/cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2054rank.html .
The World Factbook. Rank Order — Death rate. Central Intelligence Agency . /Phones/cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2066rank.html
Russia's birth, mortality rates to equal by 2011 – ministry. RIA Novosti . http://en.rian.ru/russia/20080123/97616414.html .
http://www.gks.ru
Russian Census of 2002. 4.3. Population by nationalities and knowledge of Russian; 4.4. Spreading of knowledge of languages (except Russian) . Federal State Statistics Service . http://www.perepis2002.ru/index.html?id=87 .
The Constitution of the Russian Federation. (Article 68, §2) . http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-04.htm .
Russian. University of Toronto . http://learn.utoronto.ca/Page625.aspx .
Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. Russian language. Russian language . http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761572449/Russian_Language.html .
Russian language course. Russian Language Centre, Moscow State University . http://www.rlcentre.com/russian-language-course.shtml .
Bell, I. Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia . http://books.google.com/books?id=EPP3ti4hysUC&pg=PA47 .
Zuckerman, P (2005). Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns, chapter in The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, ed. by Michael Martin . Cambridge University Press.
Religion In Russia. Embassy of the Russian Federation . http://www.russianembassy.org/RUSSIA/religion.htm .
(Russian) Сведения о религиозных организациях, зарегистрированных в Российской Федерации По данным Федеральной регистрационной службы. December 2006 . http://www.religare.ru/article36302.htm .
abMicrosoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. Russia. Russia . http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569000_6/Russia.html .
Russia . http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90196.htm .
(Russian) Опубликована подробная сравнительная статистика религиозности в России и Польше. religare.ru. 6 June 2007 . http://www.religare.ru/article42432.htm .
Fact Box: Muslims In Russia. Radio Free Europe . http://rfe.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2005/07/b7d5e783-749f-4e6a-b77e-8932ece7ad53.html?napage=2 .
Page, J (2005-08-05). The rise of Russian Muslims worries Orthodox Church. London . http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article551693.ece .
20Mln Muslims in Russia and mass conversion of ethnic Russians are myths — expert. Interfax . http://www.interfax-religion.com/?act=news&div=2869 .
Russia's Islamic rebirth adds tension. Financial Times . http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/3f3fba2c-474f-11da-b8e5-00000e2511c8.html .
Russia Faces Population Dilemma, VOA News, 18 June 2007
Mainville, M (19 November 2006). Russia has a Muslim dilemma. Page A – 17 . San Francisco Chronicle . http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/11/19/MNGJGMFUVG1.DTL .
Nettleton, S. Prayers for Ivolginsky. CNN . http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/russia/story/train/ivolginsky.monastery/ .
Russia::Religion. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007 . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/513251/Russia .
The Constitution of the Russian Federation. (Article 41) . http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-03.htm .
Russian ombudsman about propiska restrictions in modern Russia . http://www.newsru.com/russia/06jun2007/lukin.html .
Residency Restrictions in Moscow by Brad K. Blitz . http://zakirov.ru/Citizenship_Studies.pdf .
Field, M G. The health and demographic crisis in post-Soviet Russia: a two-phase development in "Russia’s Torn Safety Nets", edited by Field M. G., Twigg J. L. (eds) . 2000:11–42: St. Martin’s Press.
Highlights on Health in the Russian Federation (PDF). World Health Organization. 1999 . http://www.euro.who.int/document/e72504.pdf .
Leonard, W R (April 2002). Declining growth status of indigenous Siberian children in post-Soviet Russia . http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3659/is_200204/ai_n9037764 .
Продолжительность жизни россиян возросла с 2005 по 2007 г на 2,4 года, до 67,7 года. United Russia . http://www.duma-er.ru/news/29056 .
European Union. Central Intelligence Agency . /Phones/cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ee.html .
abHeart disease kills 1.3 million annually in Russia — chief cardiologist. RIA Novosti . http://en.rian.ru/russia/20070214/60721668.html .
Alcohol and cause-specific mortality in Russia: a retrospective case—control study of 48 557 adult deaths, The Lancet, volume 373, issue 9682, pages 2201–2214, 27 June 2009
Corruption Pervades Russia's Health System. CBS News . http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/06/28/world/main2992334.shtml .
Third of Russians smoke, but half welcome public smoking ban. RIA Novosti . http://en.rian.ru/russia/20070221/61054065.html .
HIV/AIDS in the Russian Federation. The World Bank . http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/ECAEXT/EXTECAREGTOPHEANUT/EXTECAREGTOPHIVAIDS/0,,contentMDK:20320143~menuPK:616427~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:571172,00.html .
Russian regional HIV vaccine center seeks $40–50 mln from budget. RIA Novosti . http://en.rian.ru/russia/20070206/60289838.html .
Russian Federation AIDS information "Russian Federation. UNAIDS: The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS . http://www.unaids.org/en/CountryResponses/Countries/russian_federation.asp Russian Federation AIDS information .
119,000 TB cases in Russia — health official. RIA Novosti . http://en.rian.ru/russia/20060127/43221133.html .
Country Profile: Russia (PDF). Library of Congress—Federal Research Division. October 2006 . http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Russia.pdf .
Russian policies ignite unprecedented birth rate in 2007. The Economic Times . http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/International_Business/Russian_policies_ignite_unprecedented_birth_rate_in_2007/articleshow/2750305.cms .
United Nations Expert Group Meeting On International Migration and Development (PDF). Population Division; Department of Economic and Social Affairs; United Nations Secretariat. 6–8 July 2005 . http://www.un.org/esa/population/meetings/ittmigdev2005/P11_Rybakovsky&Ryazantsev.pdf .
The Constitution of the Russian Federation. (Article 43 §1) . http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-03.htm .
Smolentseva, A. Bridging the Gap Between Higher and Secondary Education in Russia . http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/soe/cihe/newsletter/News19/text13.html .
Russia Country Guide. EUbusiness.com . http://www.eubusiness.com/Russia/russia-country-guide/ .
Background Note: Russia. U.S. Department of State . http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3183.htm .
Higher Education Institutions. Federal State Statistics Service . http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2007/b07_12/08-10.htm .
Education for All by 2015: will we make it? EFA global monitoring report, 2008; 2008 (PDF) . http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001547/154743e.pdf .
Higher education structure. State University Higher School of Economics . http://www.hse.ru/lingua/en/rus-ed.html .
See “What Can Transition Economies Learn from the First Ten Years? A New World Bank Report,” in Transition Newsletter <http://worldbank.org/transitionnewsletter/janfeb2002>. 1
ab Robert D. Kaplan. Who Lost Russia?. The New York Times. 8 October 2000.
Lipsky, J. Statement by John Lipsky, First Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund. Press Release No. 07/126 . International Monetary Fund . http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pr/2007/pr07126.htm .
Russians weigh an enigma with Putin’s protégé. MSNBC . http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24443419/ .
Russia’s economy under Vladimir Putin: achievements and failures. RIA Novosti . http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20080301/100381963.html .
Russia's unemployment rate down 10% in 2007 – report. RIA Novosti . http://en.rian.ru/russia/20080208/98724898.html .
Russia — Unemployment rate (%). indexmundi.com . http://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?c=rs&v=74 .
Russia fixed asset investment to reach $370 bln by 2010 – Kudrin. RIA Novosti . http://en.rian.ru/business/20070921/80301609.html .
Russia: How Long Can The Fun Last?. BusinessWeek . http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/dec2006/gb20061207_520461_page_2.htm .
CEE Biweekly (page 6) (PDF). UNESCO Institute for Statistics, UniCredit New Europe Research Network . http://www.unicredit-tiriac.ro/pdf/CEE-Biweekly_07-05-24.pdf .
Tavernise, S (23 March 2002). Russia Imposes Flat Tax on Income, and Its Coffers Swell. The New York Times . http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E01E0DC163BF930A15750C0A9649C8B63 .
Rabushka, A. The Flat Tax at Work in Russia: Year Three. Hoover Institution . http://www.hoover.org/research/russianecon/essays/5144587.html .
Global personal taxation comparison survey – market rankings. Mercer (consulting firms) . http://www.mercer.com.au/pressrelease/details.htm?idContent=1287670 .
Russia's foreign debt down 31.3% in Q3—finance ministry. RIA Novosti . http://en.rian.ru/russia/20061031/55272320.html .
International Reserves of the Russian Federation in 2008. The Central Bank of the Russian Federation . http://www.cbr.ru/Eng/statistics/credit_statistics/print.asp?file=inter_res_08_e.htm .
(Russian) Gross regional product by federal subjects of the Russian Federation 1998–2006. Federal State Statistics Service . http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/b01_19/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d000/vrp98-06.htm .
Russia: How Long Can The Fun Last?. BusinessWeek . http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/dec2006/gb20061207_520461.htm .
Russian Federation: Country Brief by World Bamk dead link ]
Meeting Russia’s Infrastructure Gap. The World Bank . http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/EXTPROGRAMS/EXTTRADERESEARCH/0,,contentMDK:21481768~menuPK:64001880~pagePK:210083~piPK:152538~theSitePK:544849,00.html .
Russia to invest $1 trillion in infrastructure by 2020 – ministry. RIA Novosti . http://en.rian.ru/russia/20070920/80058850.html .
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business: Reindeer husbandry in Russia by Konstantin Klokov, an abstract.
CIA World Factbook estimate
Russian State Statistics Service data (Russian
Russia takes the third place in the world by grain exports, rosbankjournal.ru (Russian
Russian State Statistics Service data (Russian
RIA Novosti
Russian Mathematicians in the 20th Century. Princeton University, USA . http://www.worldscibooks.com/mathematics/4499.html .
The Poincaré Conjecture . http://www.claymath.org/poincare/index.html .
Умов Н. А. Избранные сочинения. М. — Л., 1950.
N. Bogolubov, B. Struminsky, A. Tavkhelidze. On composite models in the theory of elementary particles. JINR Preprint D-1968, Dubna 1965.
N. N. Bogoliubov (1958). "On a New Method in the Theory of Superconductivity". Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics 34 (1) : 58.
Sebastion, Anton (2001). A dictionary of the history of science. Google Books Excerpt: Informa Health Care. p. 267. ISBN185070418X. OCLC9781850704188 . http://books.google.com/books?id=gTXFN-8v95MC&pg=PA267&dq=Dmitry+Iosifovich+Ivanovsky&ei=MDgCSdffBZW0yQSzwoSqDQ&client=firefox-a .
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics – Home Page. Aiaa.org . http://www.aiaa.org/index.cfm .
Russian space program in 2009: plans and reality. Russianspaceweb.com . http://www.russianspaceweb.com/2009.html .
Premium content. Economist.com. 2009-08-19 . http://www.economist.com/daily/chartgallery/displayStory.cfm?story_id=14256807&source=features_box4 .
George Parada (n.d.), “Panzerkampfwagen T-34(r)” at Achtung Panzer! website,
Halberstadt, Hans Inside the Great Tanks The Crowood Press Ltd. Wiltshire, England 1997 94–96 ISBN 1-86126-270-1
"The T-54/T-55 series is the hands down, all time most popular tank in history."
Poyer, Joe. The AK-47 and AK-74 Kalashnikov Rifles and Their Variations . North Cape Publications. 2004.
Weaponomics: The Economics of Small Arms . http://www.csae.ox.ac.uk/workingpapers/pdfs/2006-13text.pdf .
Rian.ruRIA Novosti: Medvedev outlines priorities for Russian economy's modernization
abThe Company - Russian Railways. Eng.rzd.ru . http://www.eng.rzd.ru/isvp/public/rzdeng?STRUCTURE_ID=4 .
Invest in Russia – Infrastructure. Invest.gov.ru . http://invest.gov.ru/en/government_support/sectors/infrastructure/ .
CIS railway timetable, route No. 002, Moscow-Pyongyang, August 2009. Note: several different routes have the same number.
CIS railway timetable, route No. 350, Kiev-Vladivostok, August 2009.
Rosstat statistics on length of roads
Transport in Russia. International Transport Statistics Database . iRAP . http://www.iraptranstats.net/rus .
CIA.govCIA World Factbook estimate.
CIA The World Factbook – Rank Order – Airports
транспортная система Российской Федерации - Мировая экономика. Global-economics.ru . http://global-economics.ru/?p=340 .
Norris, Gregory; ed. Stanley, Sadie (1980). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd edition . London: MacMillian. p. 707. ISBN0333231112.
Russia::Music. Encyclopædia Britannica . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/513251/Russia/38636/Music .
Garafola, L (1989). Diaghilev's Ballets Russes . Oxford University Press. p. 576. ISBN0195057015.
Cashin, K K. Alexander Pushkin's Influence on Russian Ballet — Chapter Five: Pushkin, Soviet Ballet, and Afterward (PDF) . http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-04072005-133328/unrestricted/12_kkc_chap5.pdf .
A Tale of Two Operas. Petersburg City . http://petersburgcity.com/news/culture/2005/11/18/theatre/ .
Russian literature. Encyclopedia Britannica . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/513793/Russian-literature .
Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. Russian Literature. Russian Literature . http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564269/Russian_Literature.html .
Kelly, C (2001). Russian Literature: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions) (Paperback) . Oxford Paperbacks. ISBN0192801449.
Russian literature; Leo Tolstoy. Encyclopedia Britannica . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/513793/Russian-literature .
Otto Friedrich (1971-09-06). Freaking-Out with Fyodor. Time Magazine . http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,943893,00.html?promoid=googlep .
History of the motion picture: The Soviet Union. Encyclopædia Britannica . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/394161/history-of-the-motion-picture .
abRussia::Motion pictures. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007 . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/513251/Russia .
Sergei Bondarchuk's War and peace," Film Forum .
White Sun of the Desert / Beloe solntse pustyni. Film Society of Lincoln Center . http://www.filmlinc.com/wrt/onsale08/russian08/whitesunofthedesert.html .
ab Dzieciolowski, Z. Kinoeye: Russia's reviving film industry . http://www.opendemocracy.net/globalization-Film/russian_film_3726.jsp .
Russian Entertainment & Media Industry worth $27.9 bn by 2011. PricewaterhouseCoopers . http://www.pwc.com/extweb/ncpressrelease.nsf/docid/B373F0C74AA25A7480257309003B9833 .
Tom Van Riper and Kurt Badenhausen. Top-Earning Female Athletes. Forbes . http://www.forbes.com/2008/07/22/women-athletes-endorsements-biz-sports-cx_tvr_kb_0722athletes.html .
IIHF Centennial All-Star Team. Iihf.com . http://www.iihf.com/channels/iihf-world-championship/news/news-singleview-world-championship/article/iihf-centennial-all-star-team.html?tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=552&cHash=3a26b76f60 .
Pure gold: Russia repeats!. IIHF . http://www.iihf.com/channels/iihf-world-championship-oc09/home/news/news-singleview-world-championship-2009/article/pure-gold-russia-repeats.html?tx_ttnewsbackPid=2717&cHash=f61f91921e .
Russian league tops first CHL ranking . http://www.iihf.com/en/home-of-hockey/news/news-singleview/browse/3/article/russian-league-tops-first-chl-ranking-1.html .
XV чемпионат России по хоккею с мячом сезон 2006/07 г.г. (Russian Bandy Championship, 2006–7 season). bandy.ru . http://www.rusbandy.ru/content.html?PageID=325 .
Tentative Lists. Whc.unesco.org . http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/state=ru .
External links
Find more about Russia on Wikipedia's sister projects:
/ - Definitions from Wiktionary
/ - Textbooks from Wikibooks
/ - Quotations from Wikiquote
/ - Source texts from Wikisource
/ - Images and media from Commons
/ - News stories from Wikinews
/ - Learning resources from Wikiversity
Government
gov.ru—Official governmental portal (Russian
Duma—Official site of the parliamentary lower house (Russian
Federation Council—Official site of the parliamentary upper house
Kremlin—Official presidential site
Chief of State and Cabinet Members
Central Bank of Russia
Federal Migration Service (Russian
Russian Federal Customs Service
Energy Statistics for Russia from the Energy Information Administration
Russian News Agency Ria Novosti
General information
Russia entry at The World Factbook
Russia at UCB Libraries GovPubs
Russia at the Open Directory Project
Wikimedia Atlas of Russia
Russia travel guide from Wikitravel
Other
ITAR-TASS News Agency
Interfax—News agency based in Moscow
Way to Russia. An Introduction to Russia and Russian People
RussGUS—Bibliographic database of German publications on Russia (about 175,000 positions
Russia Beyond the Headlines International news project about Russia.
v - >d - - e
Russia Russia topics
History
Timeline - Proto-Indo-Europeans
Scythians
Bosporan Kingdom
Khazaria
East Slavs
Rus' Khaganate
Kievan Rus'
Mongol invasion of Rus'
Tatar invasions
Volga Bulgaria
Golden Horde
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Tsardom of Russia
Russian Empire
World War I
Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Civil War
Soviet Union
Russian SFSR
World War II
Cold War
Soviet war in Afghanistan - Russian Federation - Military history
Postal history
Coat of Arms of Russia
Politics -
Constitution
Government
President
Federal Assembly
Law
Foreign relations
Elections
Constitutional Court
Political parties
Public Chamber
State Council
Judiciary
LGBT rights
Geography
Subdivisions - Ural Mountains
Siberia
European Russia
West Siberian Plain
White Nights
Caucasus Mountains
Caspian Sea
North Caucasus
Cities and towns
Islands
Economic regions
Rivers
Volcanoes
Climate
Economy -
Agriculture
Inventions
Tourism
Banking
Central Bank
Russian ruble
Transport
Communications
Corruption
Demographics -
Russians
Public holidays
Languages
Religion
Crime
2002 Census
Famous Russians
Culture -
Architecture
Literature
Ballet
Avant-garde
Opera
Cinema
Material culture
Music
Language
Cuisine
Martial arts
Folklore
Russian Internet
Sports
Symbols -
National flag
Other flags
Coat of arms
National anthem
WikiProject
Portal
Associated orginizations -
Elections Reform Support Group >
v - >d - - e
People from Russia
Alexander Nevsky -
Leaders (before 1168 - 1168–1917
1917–1991
1991–present)
Prime Ministers
Foreign Ministers
Field Marshals
Metropolitans and Patriarchs
Architects
Artists
Ballet dancers
Composers
Cosmonauts
Explorers
Inventors
Novelists
Opera singers
Philosophers
Playwrights
Poets
Yury Gagarin
References from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia
Categories: Caspian Sea countries
Russia
European countries
North Asian countries
Central Asian countries
East Asian countries
Bicontinental countries
Slavic countries
Republics
Black Sea countries
Countries bordering the Baltic Sea
Countries bordering the Pacific Ocean
Countries bordering the Arctic Ocean
Federal countries
G8 nations
G20 nations
Russian-speaking countries and territories
States and territories established in 862
Articles containing Russian language text
This article is about the country. For other uses, see Russia.
This article is semi-protected.

Fatal error: Call to undefined function show_ad() in /home/tecnicom/public_html/i/phones/menu/_menu_end.php on line 62