Jersey

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Jersey

Bailiwick of Jersey
Bailliage de Jersey
/ - /
Flag - Coat of arms
Anthem:"God Save the Queen" (official)
"Ma Normandie" ("My Normandy") (official for occasions when distinguishing anthem required)
Location of Jersey (Dark Green)
Location of Jersey ( Dark Green
Capital
(and largest city) - Saint Helier
49°11.401′N 2°06.600′W  /  49.190017°N 2.11°W  / 49.190017;-2.11
Official language(s) :English, French
Recognised regional languages - Jèrriais 1
Ethnic groups - 51.1% Jersey, 34.8% Britons, 6.4% Portuguese, 2.6% Irish, 1.7% French, 2.3% other white, 1.1% other 2
Government :Parliamentary system, Constitutional monarchy and Crown dependency
Chief of state - Elizabeth II, Duke of Normandy
Lieutenant Governor - Lt. Gen. Andrew Ridgway
Bailiff - Michael Birt 3
Chief Minister - Senator Terry Le Sueur
Status :British Crown dependency
Separation from mainland Normandy -
1204
Liberation from German occupation -
9 May 1945
Area
Total - 116 km 2 (219th)
45 sq mi
Water (%) - 0
Population
July 2009 estimate - 91,626 4 (190th
Density - 790/km 2 (12th²)
2,034/sq mi
GDP (PPP) - 2003 estimate
Total - £3.6 billion (167th
Per capita - £40,000 (2003 estimate) (6th
HDI (n/a) - n/a (n/a) (n/a
Currency :Pound sterling³ (GBP
Time zone :GMT 4
Summer (DST) - (UTC+1
Drives on the :left
Internet TLD :.je
Calling code :+44 spec. 44-1534 (landline
+44-7797
(Jersey Telecom mobile
+44-7700
(Sure mobile
+44-7829
(Airtel-Vodafone mobile
Patron saint :St. Helier
1 - Jersey’s Resident Population 2007
2 - Rank based on population density of Channel Islands including Guernsey.
3 - The States of Jersey issue their own sterling notes and coins (see Jersey pound).
4 - In a referendum on October 16, 2008, voters rejected a proposal to adopt Central European Time, by 72.4%.
The Bailiwick of Jersey ( English pronunciation:/ˈdʒɜrzi/ , French:ʒɛʁzɛ ;Jèrriais:Jèrri ) is a British Crown Dependency 6 off the coast of Normandy, France. 7 As well as the island of Jersey itself, the bailiwick includes two groups of small islands which are no longer permanently inhabited, the Minquiers and Écréhous , and the Pierres de Lecq 8 and other rocks and reefs. Together with the Bailiwick of Guernsey, it forms the grouping known as the Channel Islands. Like the Isle of Man, Jersey is a separate possession of the Crown and is not part of the United Kingdom. 9 Jersey has an international identity different from that of the UK, 10 although it belongs to the Common Travel Area 11 and the definition of "United Kingdom" in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together. 12 The United Kingdom is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey. 13 Jersey is not a full-member state of the European Union although it is included in the customs territory of the European Community. 14
Contents
1 - History
2 - Politics
2.1 - Parishes
2.2 - International relations
3 - Geography
4 - Economy
4.1 - Taxation
4.2 - Currency
4.2.1 - Coinage
5 - Demographics
5.1 - Immigration
6 - Culture
6.1 - Media
6.1.1 - Broadcast
6.1.2 - Newspaper
6.1.3 - Magazines
6.1.4 - Jersey Live
6.1.5 - Cinema
6.2 - Food and drink
6.3 - Sport
7 - Education
8 - Environment
8.1 - Biodiversity
9 - Emergency services
10 - See also
11 - Footnotes and references
11.1 - Print
12 - Further reading
13
History
References:History of Jersey
Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England;the island's recorded history extends over a thousand years.

Evidence of Bronze Age and early Iron Age settlements can be found in many locations around the island. Archaeological evidence of Roman influence has been found, in particular the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle, Les Landes, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Roman temple worship ( fanum ). 15 Evidence for settled Roman occupation has yet to be established.

Formerly under the control of Brittany and named Angia (also spelled Agna ), 16 Jersey was invaded by Vikings in the ninth century. The name of Jersey is believed to be derived from Viking heritage:the Norsesuffix -ey for island can be found in many places around the Northern European coasts. The source of the first part of the toponym is unclear. Scholars surmise it derives from jarth (Old Norse for "earth") or jarl (earl), or perhaps a personal name, Geirr ("Geirr's Island"). 17 Alternatively Celtic origin may relate to the Gaulish gar- (oak), or ceton (forest). Some believe "Jersey" is a corruption of the Latin Caesarea , the Roman name for the island, influenced by Old English suffix -ey for "island"; 18 19 this is plausible if, in the regional pronunciation of Latin, Caesarea was not IPA:kaisarea but tʃeːsarea] .

The island was eventually annexed to the Duchy of Normandy by William Longsword, Duke of Normandy in 933 and it became one of the Norman Islands. When William's descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066. The Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England were governed under one monarch. 20 The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates on the island, and Norman families living on their estates founded many of the historical Norman-French Jersey family names. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus, but retained possession of Jersey, along with Guernsey and the other Channel Islands. The islands have been internally self-governing since. 21

Islanders travelled across the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundlandfisheries in the late 16th century. 22 In recognition for help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, Charles II gave George Carteret, bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies, which he promptly named New Jersey. It is now part of the United States of America. 23 24

Trade laid the foundations of prosperity, aided by neutrality between England and France. 25 The Jersey way of life involved agriculture, milling, fishing, shipbuilding, and production of woollen goods. 19th century improvements in transport links brought tourism to the island.

During World War II, Jersey was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1 July 1940 until 9 May 1945 (when Germany surrendered). 26 .

Politics
/
The States building in St. Helier.
References:Politics of Jersey
Jersey's legislature is the States of Jersey. It includes fifty-three elected members:twelve senators (elected for six-year terms), twelve connétables (heads of parishes elected for three-year terms), twenty-nine deputies (elected for three-year terms);the Bailiff and the Deputy Bailiff (appointed to preside over the assembly and having a casting vote in favour of the status quo when presiding);and three non-voting members (the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General, and the Solicitor General) appointed by the Crown. Government departments are run by a Cabinet government under a Chief Minister. The civil head of the island, and its judiciary is the Bailiff.

Senators are elected on an island-wide mandate and Deputies are elected by local constituencies. Formally constituted political parties are unfashionable, although groups of "like-minded members" act in concert. ]

Elizabeth II's traditional title as Head of State is that of Duke of Normandy, but she does not hold that title formally. ] She reigns by her position as Queen over a Crown Dependency. Her Representative in the island is the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey, who has only token involvement in island politics. Since 2006, the incumbent Lieutenant Governor has been Lieutenant GeneralAndrew Ridgway.

The legal system is based on Norman customary law (including the Clameur de Haro), statute and English law;justice is administered by the Royal Court. Appeals are heard by the Jersey Court of Appeal and, ultimately, by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Statutes were enacted solely in French until 1929;some legislation continues to be made in French, especially amendments to existing legislation. The influence of French language legislation in Jersey is now limited and principally concerns administrative and real property matters, wills and succession and some aspects of criminal procedure. Company legislation, regulatory statutes, material bankruptcy procedures, security over shares and all other relevant matters are, to the extent addressed by existing legislation, governed by statutes enacted in English and, in many cases, are largely based on English law principles or practices. ]

Parishes

References:Parishes of Jersey
/
Map of the parishes of Jersey
Administratively, Jersey is divided into twelve parishes. All border on the sea. They were named after the Christiansaints to whom their ancient parish churches were dedicated:
Grouville (historically Saint Martin de Grouville ;incorporating Les Minquiers
Saint Brélade
Saint Clément
Saint Helier
Saint John
Saint Lawrence
Saint Martin (historically Saint Martin le Vieux ;incorporating Les Écréhous
Saint Mary
Saint Ouen
Saint Peter
Saint Saviour
Trinity
The parishes of Jersey are further divided into vingtaines (or, in St. Ouen, cueillettes ), divisions which are historic. Today they are used chiefly for purposes of local administration and electoral constituency.

The Constable ( Connétable ) is the head of each parish, elected at a public election for a three-year term to run the parish and to represent the municipality in the States. The Procureur du Bien Public (two in each parish) is the legal and financial representative of the parish (elected at a public election since 2003 in accordance with the Public Elections (Amendment) (Jersey) Law 2003 ;formerly an Assembly of Electors of each parish elected the Procureurs in accordance with the Loi (1804) au sujet des assemblées paroissiales ). A Procureur du Bien Public is elected for three years as a public trustee for the funds and property of the parish and may contract when authorised by a Parish Assembly. The Parish Assembly is the decision-making body of local government in each parish;it consists of all entitled voters of the parish.

Each parish elects its own force of Honorary Police consisting of Centeniers , Vingteniers and Constable's Officers. Centeniers are elected at a public election within each parish for a term of three years to undertake policing within the parish. The Centenier is the only officer authorised to charge and bail offenders. Formerly, the senior Centenier of each parish (entitled the Chef de Police ) was deputised for the Constable in the States of Jersey when the Constable was unable to attend a sitting of the States. This function has now been abolished.

International relations

/
Jersey Airport greets travellers with "Welcome to Jersey" in Jèrriais.
Although diplomatic representation is reserved to the Crown, Jersey has been developing its own international identity over recent years. It negotiates directly with foreign governments on matters within the competence of the States of Jersey. Jersey maintains the Bureau de Jersey in Caen, France, a permanent non-diplomatic representation, with a branch office in Rennes. A similar office, the Maison de Normandie in St. Helier, represents the Conseil général of Manche and the Conseil régional of Basse-Normandie. It hosts the Consulate of France.

Jersey is a member of the British-Irish Council, the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Assemblée parlementaire de la Francophonie. Jersey wants to become a full member of the Commonwealth in its own right. 27

Dicey and Morris (p26) 28 list the separate States comprising the British Islands:"England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, [Herm and Sark. . . is a separate country in the sense of the conflict of laws, though not one of them is a State known to public international law."

In 2007, the Chief Minister and the UK Lord Chancellor signed an agreement 10 which established a framework for the development of the international identity of Jersey. The agreement stated that:

the UK has no democratic accountability in and for Jersey;
the UK will not act internationaly on behalf of Jersey without prior consultation;
Jersey has an international identity which is different from that of the UK;
the UK recognises that the interests of Jersey may differ from those of the UK, and the UK will seek to represent any differing interests when acting in an international capacity;and
the UK and Jersey will work together to resolve or clarify any differences which may arise between their respective interests.
In a survey of 700 people carried out by Channel Television in the summer of 2000, 68% supported independence from the United Kingdom. 29 Soon after, Senator (now Deputy) Paul le Claire lodged a projet calling for Jersey's independence. Subsequently, the Jersey Law Review published an editorial 30 and articles touching on the possibility of full independence. 31 In 2007 the Chief Minister was reported 32 saying that Jersey had contingency plans in case independence were to be forced upon the Island, or if Jersey wanted to move towards independence at a later date. In June 2008 an interim report was presented to the Council of Ministers evaluating "the potential advantages and disadvantages for Jersey in seeking independence from the United Kingdom or other incremental change in the constitutional relationship, while retaining the Queen as Head of State." 33 . The Bailiff, who chaired the group that produced the report, said on 15 September 2008 that "sovereignty would cause no major problems for Jersey." 34

The island has a special relationship with the EU provided by Protocol 3 to the UK’s Treaty of Accession in 1973. This relationship cannot be changed without the unanimous agreement of all Member States and Island Authorities. Under Protocol 3, the island is part of the customs territory of the European Community. The common customs tariff, levies and other agricultural import measures apply to trade between the island and non-Member States. There is free movement of goods and trade between the island and Member States. Jersey is not, however, part of the single market in financial services. It is not required to implement EU Directives on such matters as movement of capital, company law or money laundering. Jersey plans to incorporate such measures where appropriate, with particular regard to the island's commitment to meeting international standards of financial regulation and countering money laundering and terrorist financing.

A number of tax information exchange agreements 35 have been signed directly by the island with foreign countries. Jersey’s Chief Minister signed a TIEA with the United States of America on 4 November 2002 and with the Kingdom of the Netherlands 36 on 20 June 2007. This was reported 37 as the Bailiwick's first tax treaty with a European state as a state in its own right (and the second after the similar agreement with the United States in 2002). Both TIEAs have been ratified by the States of Jersey and are in force. However, the Federal Court of Justice of Germany ruled on 1 July 2002 (case:II ZR 380/00), that under German law, for the purposes of § 110 of the German Civil Procedures Act (ZPO), Jersey is to be deemed to be part of the United Kingdom and of the European Union as well.

Jersey’s Chief Minister also signed a TIEA with the Federal Republic of Germany on 4 July 2008 and TIEAs with Denmark, the Faroes, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Sweden and Norway on 28 October 2008 (ratified March 2009) 38 . On 10 March 2009, a TIEA was signed between Jersey and the UK. 39 Also in March 2009, TIEAs were signed with France 40 and Ireland 38 , followed by a TIEA with Australia in June 2009 41 , and New Zealand 42 . These agreements will not come into force until they are ratified by the States, the relevant regulations have been adopted and the other party has completed its own domestic procedures.

Geography
/
Satellite view of Jersey.
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Coastline of Bonne Nuit
/
Map of islands of Bailiwick of Jersey
References:Geography of Jersey
Jersey is an island measuring 118.2 square kilometres 6 (65,569 vergée / 46 sq mi), including reclaimed land and intertidal zone. It lies in the English Channel, approximately 12 nautical miles (22 km;14 mi) from the Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy, France, and approximately 87 nautical miles (161 km;100 mi) south of Great Britain. 43 It is the largest and southernmost of the Channel Islands, with a maximum land elevation is 143 m (469 ft) above sea level.

The climate is temperate with mild winters and cool summers. 44 The average annual temperature, 11.6 °C (52.9 °F) is similar to the South Coast of England and the mean annual total sunshine is 1912 hours. 45 The terrain consists of a plateau sloping from long sandy bays in the south to rugged cliffs in the north. The plateau is cut by valleys running generally north-south.

Economy
References:Economy of Jersey
Thanks to specialisation in a few high-return sectors, at purchasing power parity Jersey has high economic output per capita, substantially ahead of all of the world's large developed economies. The CIA World Factbook estimate of Jersey's GDP per capita for 2005 is US$57,000, surpassed only by two other small states with similar economic characteristics, Bermuda and Luxembourg. Jersey's economy is based on financial services, tourism, electronic commerce and agriculture;financial services contribute approximately 60 percent of the island's economy. 44 The island is recognised as one of the leading offshore financial centres. In June 2005 the States introduced the Competition (Jersey) Law 2005 46 to regulate competition and stimulate economic growth. This competition law was based on that of other jurisdictions.

Aside from its banking and finance (and the finance industries supporting industries), Jersey depends on tourism. In 2006 there were 729,000 visitors (down 3% on the previous year) but total visitor spending rose 1% to £222m. 47 Duty-free goods are available for purchase on travel to and from the island.

Major agricultural products are potatoes and dairy produce. The source of milk is Jersey cattle, a small breed of cow that has also been acknowledged (though not widely so) for the quality of its meat. 48 49 Small-scale organic beef production has been reintroduced in an effort to diversify the industry.

Farmers and growers often sell surplus food and flowers in boxes on the roadside. They rely on the honesty of customers to drop the correct change into the money box and take what they want. In the 21st century, diversification of agriculture and amendments in planning strategy have led to farm shops replacing many of the roadside stalls.

On February 18, 2005, Jersey was granted Fairtrade Island status. 50

Taxation

Until the 20th century, the States relied on indirect taxation to finance the administration of Jersey. The levying of impôts (duties) different from those of the United Kingdom was granted by Charles II and remained in the hands of the Assembly of Governor, Bailiff and Jurats until 1921 when that body's tax raising powers were transferred to the Assembly of the States, leaving the Assembly of Governor, Bailiff and Jurats to serve simply as licensing bench for the sale of alcohol (this fiscal reform also stripped the Lieutenant-Governor of most of his effective remaining administrative functions). The Income Tax Law of 1928 introducing income tax was the first law drafted entirely in English. Income tax has been levied at a flat rate of 20% set by the occupying Germans during World War II.

As VAT has not been levied in the island, luxury goods have often been cheaper than in the UK or in France, providing an incentive for tourism from neighbouring countries. The absence of VAT has also led to the growth of the fulfilment industry, whereby low-value luxury items, such as videos, lingerie and contact lenses are exported, avoiding VAT on arrival and thus undercutting local prices on the same products. In 2005, the States of Jersey announced limits on licences granted to non-resident companies trading in this way.

Although Jersey does not have VAT, the States of Jersey introduced a goods and services tax (GST) on 6 May 2008, at a standard rate of 3%. Some supplies are taxed at 0% and others exempt.

Currency
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Twin cash machines at a bank that dispensed a choice of Bank of England or Jersey banknotes. Since the intervention of the Treasurer of the States in 2005, cash machines generally (with the exception of those at the Airport and Elizabeth Harbour) no longer dispense English notes.
References:Jersey pound
Jersey issues its own Jersey banknotes and coins which circulate with UK coinage, Bank of England notes, Scottish notes and Guernsey currency within the island. Jersey currency is not legal tender outside Jersey:However, in the United Kingdom it is acceptable tender 51 and can be surrendered at banks within that country in exchange for Bank of England-issued currency on a like-for-like basis.

Coinage

Designs on the reverse of Jersey coins:

1p Le Hocq Tower (coastal defence
2p L'Hermitage, site where St. Helier lived
5p Seymour Tower (offshore defence
10p La Pouquelaye de Faldouet (dolmen
20p La Corbière Lighthouse
50p Grosnez Castle (ruins
The main currency of Jersey is the pound, although in many places the euro is accepted because of the positioning of the island. Pound coins are issued, but are much less widely used than pound notes. Designs on the reverse of Jersey pound coins include historic ships built in Jersey and a series of the twelve parishes' crests. The motto round the milled edge of Jersey pound coins is Insula Caesarea (English:Island of Jersey ). Two pound coins are issued also, but in very small quantities.
Demographics
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Mont Orgueil was built in the 13th century to protect Jersey from French invasion.
References:Demographics of Jersey
The island has numerous residents born outside Jersey;47% of the population are not native to the island. The total population is nearly 88,000. Thirty percent of the population is concentrated in Saint Helier, the island's only town. 52

Censuses have been undertaken in Jersey since 1821. The most recent was the 2001 Census conducted on March 11. Of the roughly 88,000 people in Jersey, around 40 percent identify as of Jersey / Norman descent and 40 percent of British (English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish) descent. The largest minority groups in the island are Portuguese (around 7%, especially Madeiran);Irish and Polish. The ethnicFrench community is also present and there is a growing community of Russian immigrants 2.

The people of Jersey are often called islanders or, in individual terms, Jerseyman or Jerseywoman. Some Jersey-born people identify as British and value the special relationship between the British Crown and the island.

Religion in Jersey has a complex history and much diversity. The established church is the Church of England. In the countryside, Methodism found its traditional stronghold. A minority of Roman Catholics can also be found in Jersey. There are two Catholic private secondary schools:De La Salle College in Saint Saviour is an all-boys school, and Beaulieu Convent School in Saint Helier is an all-girls school;and FCJ primary school in St. Saviour. A Catholic order of Sisters has a presence in school life.

Immigration

For immigration and nationality purposes, the United Kingdom generally treats Jersey as though it were part of the UK. Jersey is constitutionally entitled to restrict immigration 53 by non-Jersey residents, but control of immigration at the point of entry cannot be introduced for British, certain Commonwealth and EEA nationals without change to existing international law. 54 Immigration is therefore controlled by a mixture of restrictions on those without residential status purchasing or renting property in the island and restrictions on employment. Migration policy is to move to a registration system to integrate residential and employment status. 54 Jersey maintains its own immigration 55 and border controls. United Kingdom immigration legislation may be extended to Jersey by order in council (subject to exceptions and adaptations) following consultation with Jersey and with Jersey's consent. 56 Although Jersey citizens are full British citizens, an endorsement restricting the right of establishment in European Union states other than the UK is placed in the passports of British citizens connected solely with the Channel Islands and Isle of Man. 57 Those who have a parent or grandparent born in the United Kingdom, or who have lived in the United Kingdom for five years, are not subject to this restriction.

Historical large-scale immigration was facilitated by the introduction of steamships (from 1823). By 1840, up to 5,000 English people, mostly half-pay officers and their families, had settled in Jersey. 58 In the aftermath of 1848, Polish, Russian, Hungarian, Italian and French political refugees came to Jersey. Following Louis Napoléon's coup of 1851, more French proscrits arrived. By the end of the 19th century, well-to-do British families, attracted by the lack of income tax, were settling in Jersey in increasing numbers, establishing St Helier as a predominantly English-speaking town.

Seasonal work in agriculture had depended mostly on Bretons and mainland Normans from the 19th century. The growth of tourism attracted staff from the United Kingdom. Following Liberation in 1945, agricultural workers were mostly recruited from the United Kingdom - the demands of reconstruction in mainland Normandy and Brittany employed domestic labour.

Until the 1960s, the population had been relatively stable for decades at around 60,000 (excluding the Occupation years). Economic growth spurred immigration and a rise in population. From the 1960s Portuguese workers arrived, mostly working initially in seasonal industries in agriculture and tourism.

A trend that has developed over the past few years is the setting up of recruitment agencies in a number of countries in the world, to employ either cheap labour (often from poor countries) or qualified/experienced labour. Amongst the countries that have been targeted for this type of recruitment are:Australia, Cyprus, Kenya, Latvia, Nigeria, Poland, Portugal, and South Africa.

Culture
References:Culture of Jersey
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Jèrriais road sign ("The black road") in Saint Ouen.
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Victor Hugo in exile, 1850s.
Until the 19th century, indigenous Jèrriais — a variety of Norman — was the language of the island, though French was used for official business. During the 20th century, however, an intense language shift took place and Jersey today is predominantly English-speaking. Jèrriais nonetheless survives;around 2,600 islanders (three percent) are reckoned to be habitual speakers, and some 10,000 (12 percent) in all claim some knowledge of the language, particularly amongst the elderly in rural parishes. There have been efforts to revive Jèrriais in schools, and the highest number of declared Jèrriais speakers is in the capital.

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Actress Lillie Langtry, nicknamed the Jersey Lily .
The dialects of Jèrriais differ in phonology and, to a lesser extent, lexis between parishes, with the most marked differences to be heard between those of the west and east. Many place names are in Jèrriais, and French and English place names are also to be found. Anglicisation of the toponymy increased apace with the migration of English people to the island.

Some Neolithic carvings are the earliest works of artistic character to be found in Jersey. Only fragmentary wall-paintings remain from the rich mediaeval artistic heritage, after the wholesale iconoclasm of the Calvinist Reformation of the 16th century.

Printing arrived in Jersey only in the 1780s, but the island supported a multitude of regular publications in French (and Jèrriais) and English throughout the 19th century, in which poetry, most usually topical and satirical, flourished (see Jèrriais literature).

The island is particularly famous for the Battle of Flowers, a carnival held annually since 1902. 59 Annual music festivals include Rock in the Park, Avanchi presents Jazz in July, Jersey Live, the music section of the Jersey Eisteddfod. Other festivals include La Fête dé Noué (Christmas festival), La Faîs'sie d'Cidre (cidermaking festival), the Battle of Britain air display, food festivals, and parish events. Branchage Jersey International Film Festival has recently become a major addition to Jersey's cultural calendar attracting filmmakers from all over the world.

The island's patron saint is Saint Helier. 60

Media

Broadcast

References:Telecommunications in Jersey
BBC Radio Jersey provides a radio service, and BBC Spotlight Channel Islands with headquarters in Jersey provides a joint television news service with Guernsey.

Channel Television is a regional ITV franchise shared with the Bailiwick of Guernsey but with its headquarters in Jersey.

Channel 103 is a commercial radio station.

The Frémont Point transmitting station is a facility for FM and television transmission at Frémont

Newspaper

Jersey's only newspaper, the Jersey Evening Post , claims that it has an average issue readership of 73% of adults in Jersey and that over the course of a week 93 per cent of all adults will read a copy of the newspaper, 61 it being the main printed source of local news and official notices. The newspaper features a weekly Jèrriais column accompanied by English-language précis.

Magazines

Lifestyle magazines include Gallery Magazine 62 (monthly), Jersey Now 63 (quarterly) and The Jersey Life 64 (monthly).

Les Nouvelles Chroniques du Don Balleine 65 is a quarterly literary magazine in Jèrriais.

Jersey Live

Jersey Live is an indie/dancemusic festival held annually at The Royal Jersey Showground in the parish of Trinity. The festival has grown in popularity and size each year and has drawn interest from people outside the Channel Islands with foreign visitors making up approximately 27% of the 2006 crowd.

Cinema

In 1909, T.J. West established the first cinema in the Royal Hall in St. Helier, which became known as West's Cinema in 1923 (demolished 1977). The first talking picture, The Perfect Alibi , was shown on 30 December 1929 at the Picture House in St. Helier. The Jersey Film Society was founded on 11 December 1947 at the Café Bleu, West's Cinema. The large Art Deco Forum Cinema was opened in 1935 — during the German Occupation this was used for German propaganda films.

The Odeon Cinema was opened 2 June 1952 and, was later rebranded in the early 21st century as the Forum cinema. It's owners, however, struggled to meet tough competition from the Cineworld Cinemas group, which opened a 10 screen multiplex on the waterfront centre in St. Helier on reclaimed land in December 2002 and the Forum closed its doors in late 2008.

Since 1997 ] , Kevin Lewis (formerly of the Cine Centre and the New Forum) has arranged the Jersey Film Festival, a charity event showing the latest and also classic films outdoors in 35 mm on a big screen. The 2006 festival was held in Howard Davis Park, St Saviour, on the 12–18 August 2006. In 2008 the boutique Branchage film festival was held. 66

In August 2006, plans were revealed to convert the former Odeon building into a department store while retaining the landmark architecture.

Food and drink
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Jersey wonders , or mèrvelles , are a favourite snack consisting of fried dough, found especially at country fêtes. According to tradition, the success of cooking depends on the state of the tide.
Seafood has traditionally been important to the cuisine of Jersey:mussels (called moules locally), oysters, lobster and crabs — especially spider crabsormers, and conger.

Jersey milk being very rich, cream and butter have played a large part in insular cooking. (See Channel Island milk) However there is no indigenous tradition of cheese making, contrary to the custom of mainland Normandy, but some cheese is produced commercially. Jersey fudge, mostly imported and made with milk from overseas Jersey cattle herds, is a popular food product with tourists.

Jersey Royal potatoes are the local variety of new potato, and the island is famous for its early crop of Chats (small potatoes) from the south-facing côtils (steeply sloping fields). Originally grown using vraic as a natural fertiliser giving them their own individual taste, only a small portion of those grown in the island still use this method. They are eaten in a variety of ways, often simply boiled and served with butter or when not as fresh fried in butter.

Apples historically were an important crop. Bourdélots are apple dumplings, but the most typical speciality is black butter ( lé nièr beurre ), a dark spicy spread prepared from apples, cider and spices. Cider used to be an important export. After decline and near-disappearance in the late 20th century, apple production is being increased and promoted. Apple brandy is also produced, as is some wine.

Among other traditional dishes are cabbage loaf, Jersey wonders ( les mèrvelles ), fliottes, bean crock ( les pais au fou ), nettle ( ortchie ) soup, vraic buns.

Sport
References:Sport in Jersey
In its own right Jersey participates in the Commonwealth Games and in the biennial Island Games, which it last hosted in 1997.

In sporting events in which Jersey does not have international representation, when the British Home Nations are competing separately, islanders that do have high athletic skill may choose to compete for any of the Home Nations – there are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to represent another Home Nation.

Jersey is an affiliate member of the International Cricket Council (ICC). The Jersey cricket team plays in the Inter-insular match among others. The Jersey cricket team competes in the World Division 4, held in Tanzania in October 2008, after recently finishing as runners-up and therefore being promoted from the World Division 5 held in Jersey. They also compete in the European Division 2, held in Guernsey during August 2008. The youth cricket teams have been promoted to play in the European Division 1 alongside Ireland, Scotland, Denmark, the Netherlands and Guernsey. In two tournaments at this level Jersey have finished 6th.

For horseracing, Les Landes Racecourse can be found at Les Landes in St. Ouen next to the ruins of Grosnez Castle.

The Jersey Football Association supervises football in Jersey. The Jersey Football Combination has 9 teams in its top division. The 2006/07 champions were Jersey Scottish where Ross Crick is the top scorer. The Jersey national football team plays in the annual Muratti competition among others.

Jersey has two public indoor swimming pools. Swimming in the sea, surfing, windsurfing and other marine sports are practised. Jersey Swimming Club have organised an annual swim from Elizabeth Castle to Saint Helier Harbour for over 50 years. A round-island swim is a major challenge which a select number of swimmers have achieved. The Royal Channel Island Yacht Club is based in Jersey.

There is one facility for extreme sports and some facilities for youth sports. Coastal cliffs provide opportunities for rock climbing.

In golf, two golfers from Jersey have won The Open Championship 7 times between them, Harry Vardon winning 6 times and Ted Ray winning once. Harry and Ted have also won the US Open one time each and Harry's brother Tom Vardon has had some smaller wins on European Tours.

Jersey has one un-roofed skateboarding park

Education
The States of Jersey provides education through state schools (including a fee-paying option at secondary level) and also supports private schools. The Jersey curriculum generally follows that of England.

There is no self-sufficient autonomous institution of higher education in Jersey. However, it is possible to take some Higher Education qualifications locally, on a full-time or part-time basis and also to study by distance learning.

Jersey has a college of further education and university centre, Highlands College. As well as offering part-time and evening courses Highlands is the largest sixth form provider in the Island, and works collaboratively with a range of organisations including the Open University, University of Plymouth and London South Bank University. In particular students can study at Highlands for the two year Foundation Degree in Financial Services and for BSc Social Sciences, both validated by the University of Plymouth.

The college incorporates the Jersey Business School but this is at an early stage of development in terms of degree programmes.

The Open University supports students in Jersey (but they pay higher fees than UK students). The Department for Education, Sport &Culture provides some funding for distance learning courses, but at first degree level only.

Environment
Three areas of land are protected for their ecological or geological interest as Sites of Special Interest (SSI):Les Landes, Les Blanches Banques and La Lande du Ouest. A large area of intertidal zone is designated as a Ramsar site.

Jersey is the home of Durrell Wildlife (formerly known as the Jersey Zoological Park) founded by the naturalist, zookeeper, and author Gerald Durrell.

Biodiversity

Four species of small mammal are considered native 67 :the wood mouse ( Apodemus sylvaticus ), the Jersey bank vole ( Myodes glareolus caesarius ), the Lesser white-toothed shrew ( Crocidura suaveolens ) and the French shrew ( Sorex coronatus ). Three wild mammals are well-established introductions:the rabbit (introduced in the mediaeval period), the red squirrel and the hedgehog (both introduced in the 19th century). The stoat ( Mustela erminea ) became extinct in Jersey between 1976 and 2000. The Green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) is a protected species of reptile;Jersey is its only habitat in the British Isles. 68

Trees generally considered native are the alder ( Alnus glutinosa ), silver birch ( Betula pendula ), sweet chestnut ( Castanea sativa ), hazel ( Corylus avellana ), hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna ), beech ( Fagus sylvatica ), ash ( Fraxinus excelsior ), aspen ( Populus tremula ), wild cherry ( Prunus avium ), blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa ), holm oak ( Quercus ilex ), oak ( Quercus robur ), sallow ( Salix cinerea ), elder ( Sambucus nigra ), elm ( Ulmus spp.), and medlar ( Mespilus germanica ). Among notable introduced species, the cabbage palm ( Cordyline australis ) has been planted in coastal areas and may be seen in many gardens. 69

Notable marine species 70 include the ormer, conger, bass, undulate ray, grey mullet, ballan wrasse and garfish. Marine mammals include the bottlenosed dolphin 71 and grey seal. 72

Emergency services
Emergency services 73 are provided by the States of Jersey Police with the support of the Honorary Police as necessary, States of Jersey Ambulance Service 74 , Jersey Fire and Rescue Service 75 and the Jersey Coastguard 76 . The Jersey Fire and Rescue Service and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate an inshore rescue and lifeboat service;Channel Islands Air Search provides rapid response airborne search of the surrounding waters 77 .

The States of Jersey Fire Service was formed in 1938 when the States took over the Saint Helier Fire Brigade, which had been formed in 1901.

The first lifeboat was equipped, funded by the States, in 1830. The RNLI established a lifeboat station in 1884. 78

Border security and controls are undertaken by the States of Jersey Customs and Immigration Service.

See also
References:Outline of Jersey
Bergerac (TV series)
Dodo Club
Jersey Airport
Jersey cattle
Jersey Live
Jersey Post
Jersey Telecom
Jersey Zoological Park
-
Living Legend
Roman Catholicism in Jersey
Transport in Jersey
Victoria College, Jersey
Haut de la Garenne




Footnotes and references
DEVELOPMENT OF A CULTURAL STRATEGY FOR THE ISLAND
Chapter 2 - Population Characteristics, Population by cultural and ethnic background.
States' new bailiff is sworn in. BBC News . 2009-07-09 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/jersey/8141678.stm .
CIA World Fact Book
Jersey rejects time-zone change. BBC News. 2008-10-16 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/jersey/7671009.stm .
Where is Jersey. Jersey Tourism . http://www.jersey.com/wij/wij_en.htm .
Walking — Walking Routes — Moonwalks. Jersey Tourism . http://www.jersey.com/content_page.asp?id=127 .
abJersey and UK agree framework for developing Jersey’s international identity
Visas / entry clearances / work permit issue. Home Affairs, Customs &Immigration, Immigration . States of Jersey . http://www.gov.je/HomeAffairs/CusAndImm/Immigration/ .
British Nationality Act 1981. Legislation, UK, Acts . Office of Public Sector Information . http://www.opsi.gov.uk/RevisedStatutes/Acts/ukpga/1981/cukpga_19810061_en_8#pt5-l1g57 .
http://www.statesassembly.gov.je/documents/reports/46527-24954-2762008.htm#_Toc188083991
Jersey's relationship with the European Union. Home Affairs, Customs &Immigration, Customs &Excise;Traders Information . States of Jersey . http://www.gov.je/HomeAffairs/CusAndImm/Customs+and+Excise/Traders+Information/Jerseys+relationship+with+the+European+Union/ .
History of stamps. Jersey Post . http://www.jerseypost.com/jppage.aspx?id=170 .
"Jersey", Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names . John Everett-Heath. Oxford University Press 2005. Oxford Reference Online . Oxford University Press. Jersey Library. 6 October 2006 1
Harper, Douglas (November 2001). Online Etymological Dictionary . http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=jersey .
A Short Constitutional History of Jersey. Voisin &Co.. 1999-05-18 . http://www.voisinlaw.com/pg368.htm .
Liddicoat, Anthony (1 August 1994). A Grammar of the Norman French of the Channel Islands. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 6. ISBN3-11-012631-1 . http://books.google.com/?id=pgobrmlMAGQC&pg=PA6&lpg=PA6 .
Ommer, Rosemary E. (1991). From Outpost to Outport. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN0-7735-0730-2 . http://books.google.com/?id=nrdYUXv817sC&pg=PA13&lpg=PP11 .
Weeks, Daniel J. (1 May 2001). Not for Filthy Lucre's Sake. Lehigh University Press. pp. 45. ISBN0-934223-66-1 . http://books.google.com/?id=FM_BrMaXR2kC&pg=PA45&lpg=PA45 .
Cochrane, Willard W. (30 September 1993). The Development of American Agriculture. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 18. ISBN0-8166-2283-3 . http://books.google.com/?id=gnqxb5vuTEMC&pg=PA18&lpg=PA18 .
Ommer, Rosemary E. (1991). From Outpost to Outport. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 12. ISBN0-7735-0730-2 . http://books.google.com/?id=nrdYUXv817sC&pg=PA12&lpg=PA12 .
Bellows, Tony. What was the "Occupation" and why is "Liberation Day" celebrated in the Channel Islands?. Société Jersiaise . http://www.societe-jersiaise.org/whitsco/liberat1.htm .
*Dicey &Morris. (1993) The Conflict of Laws 12th edition. London:Sweet &Maxwell Ltd. (pp26/30) ISBN 0-420-48280-6
Channel Isles.
TheSword of Damocles", Jersey Law Review , Volume 6, Issue 3, October 2002
Jersey and the United Kingdom:a choice of destiny, Jersey Law Review , Volume 8, Issue 3, October 2004.
Jersey Evening Post , 21 April 2007
Second Interim Report of the Constitution Review Group
Bailiff’s speech at Assise d’Héritage
http://www.gov.je/TreasuryResources/IncomeTax/TIEA/
International Finance - The Netherlands and Jersey sign agreement on the exchange of tax information
Jersey Evening Post, 22 June 2007
abhttp://www.gov.je/TreasuryResources/News/TIEAIreland.htm
http://www.gov.je/TreasuryResources/IncomeTax/TIEA/TieaUK.htm
http://www.gov.je/TreasuryResources/News/FranceTIEA.htm
Tax-sharing exchange pact signed. BBC News . 2009-06-11 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/jersey/8095980.stm .
http://www.gov.je/ChiefMinister/JerseySignsTIEAwithNewZealand.htm
Geographically it is not part of the British Isles. As of October 15, 2006, the States of Jersey indicates that the island is situated "only 22 km off the northwest coast of France and 140 km south of England".
abCIA — The World Factbook — Jersey. Central Intelligence Agency. 2006-10-05 . /Phones/cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/je.html .
http://www.jcra.je/pdf/051101%20Competition-Jersey-Law--2005.pdf
Jersey Tourism Annual Report, 2006
Davenport, Philippa (2006-05-20). Jersey's cash cow. Financial Times . http://www.ft.com/cms/s/7a7bb3e0-e720-11da-9046-0000779e2340.html .
Witmer, Jason (2004-06-11). CROPP contracts brings profitability to Ohio grass-based, organic dairies. The Rodale Institute . http://www.newfarm.org/features/0604/nissley/index.shtml .
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200102/ldhansrd/vo011206/text/11206-28.htm
2001 Census
gov.je - Summary Policy
abgov.je - Migration Monitoring and Regulation
gov.je - Immigration
Answer by Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Home Office, (Lord West of Spithead) in UK House of Lords 18 January 2010
gov.je - Passports - I have an observation in my passport which says - the holder is not entitled to benefit from EC Provisions relating to employment and settlement - what does that mean?
Balleine's History of Jersey
The Jersey Battle of Flowers. Jersey Battle of Flowers Association. 2005 . http://www.battleofflowers.com/thebattle/index.htm .
Falle, Samuel. Saint Helier — Saint Hélyi — Saint Hélier. Geraint Jennings, Société Jersiaise . http://www.societe-jersiaise.org/geraint/helier/falle.html .
Gallery Magazine Jersey
http://www.jerseyeveningpost.com/pub2.html
Quality LifeStyle Magazines - Jersey, Harpenden,Jersey Estrella Radlett, St Albans
Les Nouvelles Chroniques du Don Balleine
http://www.branchagefestival.com/
Species Based Research Projects - The Jersey Mammal Survey
Biodiversity Action Plan
Trees in Jersey , The Jersey Association of Men of the Trees, Jersey 1997, ISBN 0953097900
http://www.jersey.com/English/sightsandactivities/activities/fishing/AtoZFish/Pages/default.aspx
http://www.gov.je/NR/rdonlyres/49F2D9D7-2E1A-4958-9446-F3ADC2672868/0/Keithspaper.pdf
http://www.gov.je/NR/rdonlyres/27F0C1B6-73B4-4B51-A743-7000AEEAC404/0/CZMTPMarineBiodiversityOct05.pdf
http://www.gov.je/PublicOrderJusticeRights/EmergencyServices/
http://www.gov.je/Health/hospital_services/specialities/ambulance/
http://www.gov.je/HomeAffairs/Fire/
http://www.jersey-harbours.com/Jersey%20Coastguard%20and%20Sea%20Rescue%20Centre.html
http://www.ci-airsearch.com/
http://www.rnli.org.uk/rnli_near_you/southwest/stations/StHelierJerseyCI/history
Jersey Through the Centuries , Leslie Sinel, Jersey 1984, ISBN 0-86120-003-9
Further reading
Balleine's History of Jersey, Marguerite Syvret and Joan Stevens (1998) ISBN 1-86077-065-7
A Biographical Dictionary of Jersey, G.R. Balleine
Archaeology
The Archaeology of the Channel Islands. Vol. 2:The Bailiwick of Jersey by Jacquetta Hawkes (1939
The Prehistoric Foundations of Europe to the Mycenean Age, 1940, C. F. C. Hawkes
Jersey in Prehistory, Mark Patton, 1987
The Archaeology and Early History of the Channel Islands, Heather Sebire, 2005.
Dolmens of Jersey:A Guide, James Hibbs (1988).
A Guide to The Dolmens of Jersey, Peter Hunt, Société Jersiaise, 1998.
Statements in Stone:Monuments and Society in Neolithic Brittany, Mark Patton, 1993
Hougue Bie, Mark Patton, Warwick Rodwell, Olga Finch, 1999
The Channel Islands, An Archaeological Guide, David Johnston, 1981
The Archaeology of the Channel Islands, Peter Johnston, 1986
Cattle
One Hundred Years of the Royal Jersey Agricultural and Horticultural Society 1833-1933. Compiled from the Society's Records, by H.G. Shepard, Secretary Eric J. Boston. Jersey Cattle, 1954
Religion
The Channel Islands under Tudor Government, A.J. Eagleston
Reformation and Society in Guernsey, D.M. Ogier
International Politics and the Establishment of Presbytarianism in the Channel Islands:The Coutances Connection, C.S.L. Davies
Religion, History and G.R. Balleine:The Reformation in Jersey, by J. St John Nicolle, The Pilot Magazine
The Reformation in Jersey:The Process of Change over Two centuries, J. St John Nicolle
The Chroniques de Jersey in the light of contemporary documents, BSJ, AJ Eagleston
The Portrait of Richard Mabon, BSJ, Joan Stevens
External links
Search Wikimedia Commons - Wikimedia Commons has media related to:Jersey
States of Jersey
Jersey Tourism
BBC Jersey
Isle News Jersey
Jersey in The World Factbook
Jersey History
Jersey Independent visitors guide
International Finance Centre - local business news
Jersey Legal Information Board (JLIB)
Les Pâraîsses d'Jèrri en Jèrriais (map of parishes, coat-of-arms, and history
Map of Jersey
Société Jersiaise
This is Jersey (Local Portal)
About Jersey Brief History of Jersey
Virtual Tour of the Channel Island of Jersey
Jersey Weather Timelapse Videos
Jersey travel guide from Wikitravel
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