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Republic of Armenia Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն
Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun
/ - /
FlagCoat of arms
Anthem:Մեր Հայրենիք (Armenian)
Mer Hayrenik (transcription)
"Our Fatherland"
(and largest city) - Yerevan coa.gifYerevan
4011′N 4431′E  /  40.183N 44.517E  / 40.183;44.517
Official language(s) :Armenian 1 ]
Other language :Russian 2 ] 3 ]
Ethnic groups - 97.9% Armenian,
1.3% Yazidis,
0.5% Russian,
0.3% others. 4 ]
Demonym :Armenian
Government :Presidential republic
President - Serzh Sargsyan
Prime Minister - Tigran Sargsyan
Speaker - Hovik Abrahamyan
Formation and independence
Democratic Republic of Armenia established -
May 28, 1918
from the Soviet Union

August 23, 1990
September 21, 1991
December 25, 1991
Total - 29,743 km 2 (141st)
11,484 sq mi
Water (%) - 4.71
2008 estimate - 3,249,500 6 ] 7 ] (135th
Density - 108.4/km 2 (99th)
280.7/sq mi
GDP (PPP) - 2009 estimate
Total - $16.222 billion 8 ]
Per capita - $4,966 8 ]
GDP (nominal) - 2009 estimate
Total - $8.714 billion 8 ]
Per capita - $2,667 8 ]
Gini (2003) - 33.8 ( medium
HDI (2007) - ▲ 0.798 ( medium ) (84rd
Currency :Dram (դր.) (AMD
Time zone :UTC (UTC+4
Summer (DST) - DST (UTC+5
Drives on the :Right
Internet TLD
Calling code :374
Patron saint :St. Bartholomew the Apostle, St. Gregory the Illuminator, St. Jude the Apostle, Virgin Mary
Armenia en-us-Armenia.ogg/ɑrˈmiːniə/
1 - Etymology of name
2 - History
2.1 - Antiquity
2.2 - Middle Ages
2.3 - Early Modern era
2.4 - World War I and the Armenian Genocide
2.5 - Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA)
2.6 - Soviet Armenia
2.7 - Restoration of independence
3 - Government and politics
3.1 - Foreign relations
4 - Military
5 - Administrative divisions
6 - Geography
6.1 - Topography
6.2 - Environment
6.3 - Climate
7 - Economy
8 - Demographics
8.1 - Diaspora
8.2 - Health
8.3 - Religion
9 - Culture
9.1 - Music
9.2 - Art
9.2.1 - Armenian artists
9.3 - Wedding ceremony
10 - Education
11 - Sport
12 - See also
13 - References
13.1 - Notes
Etymology of name
Referencess:Armenia (name) and Hayk
The native Armenian name for the country is Hayk’ . The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Hayastan , by addition of the Iranian suffix -stan (land). The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk (Հայկ ), the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who according to Moses of Chorene defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC, and established his nation in the Ararat region. 14 ] The further origin of the name is uncertain.

The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old PersianBehistun inscription (515 BC) as Armina (Old Persian a.pngOld Persian ra.pngOld Persian mi.pngOld Persian i.pngOld Persian na.png). Ancient GreekΑρμένιοι "Armenians" is mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus (476 BC). 15 ] Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality. He relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. 16 ] According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamich, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendent of Hayk. 17 ] 18 ]

References:History of Armenia


References:Prehistoric Armenia
The Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under Tigranes the Great, who reigned between 95 and 66 BC
Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the Biblical mountains of Ararat, upon which, according to the Bible, Noah's Ark came to rest after the flood. (Gen. 8:4). In the Bronze Age, several states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittite Empire (at the height of its power), Mitanni (South-Western historical Armenia), and Hayasa-Azzi (1500#1200 BC). Then, the Nairi people (twelfth to ninth centuries BC) and the Kingdom of Urartu (1000#600 BC) successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highland. Each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people. 19 ] 20 ] 21 ] 22 ] Yerevan, the modern capital of Armenia, was founded in 782 BC by king Argishti I.
The historical Orontid site of Karmir Blur (Red Hill), Teishebaini, near Yerevan
Around 600 BC, the Kingdom of Armenia was established under the Orontid Dynasty. The kingdom reached its height between 95 and 66 BC under Tigranes the Great, becoming one of the most powerful kingdoms of its time within the region. Throughout its history, the kingdom of Armenia enjoyed periods of independence intermitted with periods of autonomy subject to contemporary empires. Armenia's strategic location between two continents has subjected it to invasions by many peoples, including the Assyrians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Mongols, Persians, Ottoman Turks and Russians.

Armenia was historically MazdeanZoroastrian (as opposed to the ZurvaniteSassanid dynasty), particularly focused on the worship of Mihr (Avestan Mithra), and Christianity spread into the country as early as AD 40. King Tiridates III (AD 238#314) made Christianity the state religion in AD 301, 23 ] 24 ] becoming the first officially Christian state, ten years before the Roman Empire granted Christianity an official toleration under Galerius, and 36 years before Constantine the Great was baptized.

After the fall of the Armenian kingdom in AD 428, most of Armenia was incorporated as a marzpanate within the Sassanid Empire. Following an Armenian rebellion in AD 451, Christian Armenians maintained their religious freedom, while Armenia gained autonomy.

Middle Ages

References:Medieval Armenia
After the Marzpanate period (428#636), Armenia emerged as the Emirate of Armenia, an autonomous principality within the Arabic Empire, reuniting Armenian lands previously taken by the Byzantine Empire as well. The principality was ruled by the Prince of Armenia, recognised by the Caliph and the Byzantine Emperor. It was part of the administrative division/emirate Arminiyya created by the Arabs, which also included parts of Georgia and Caucasian Albania, and had its center in the Armenian city Dvin. The Principality of Armenia lasted until 884, when it regained its independence from the weakened Arabic Empire.
The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199#1375
The re-emergent Armenian kingdom was ruled by the Bagratuni dynasty, and lasted until 1045. In time, several areas of the Bagratid Armenia separated as independent kingdoms and principalities such as the Kingdom of Vaspurakan ruled by the House of Artsruni, while still recognizing the supremacy of the Bagratid kings.
Etchmiadzin Cathedral
In 1045, the Byzantine Empire conquered Bagratid Armenia. Soon, the other Armenian states fell under Byzantine control as well. The Byzantine rule was short lived, as in 1071 Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantines and conquered Armenia at the Battle of Manzikert, establishing the Seljuk Empire. To escape death or servitude at the hands of those who had assassinated his relative, Gagik II, King of Ani, an Armenian named Roupen went with some of his countrymen into the gorges of the Taurus Mountains and then into Tarsus of Cilicia. The Byzantine governor of the palace gave them shelter where the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was eventually established.

The Seljuk Empire soon started to collapse. In the early 1100s, Armenian princes of the Zakaridnoble family established a semi-independent Armenian principality in Northern and Eastern Armenia, known as Zakarid Armenia, lasted under patronages of Seljuks, Georgian Kingdom, Atabegs of Azerbaijan and Khwarezmid Empire. The noble family of Orbelians shared control with the Zakarids in various parts of the country, especially in Syunik and Vayots Dzor.

Early Modern era

During the 1230s, the Mongol Empire conquered the Zakaryan Principality, as well as the rest of Armenia. Armenian soldiers formed an important part of the military of the Ilkhanate. ] The Mongolian invasions were soon followed by those of other Central Asian tribes (Kara Koyunlu, Timurid and Ak Koyunlu), which continued from the 1200s until the 1400s. After incessant invasions, each bringing destruction to the country, Armenia in time became weakened. During the 1500s, the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia divided Armenia among themselves. The Russian Empire later incorporated Eastern Armenia (consisting of the Erivan ] and Karabakhkhanates ] within Persia) in 1813 and 1828 ] .
Map of Imperial Russia'sArmenian Oblast
Under Ottoman rule, the Armenians were granted considerable autonomy within their own enclaves and lived in relative harmony with other groups in the empire (including the ruling Turks). However, as Christians under a strict Muslim social system, Armenians faced pervasive discrimination. When they began pushing for more rights within the Ottoman Empire, Sultan ‘Abdu’l-Hamid II, in response, organised state-sponsored massacres against the Armenians between 1894 and 1896, resulting in an estimated death toll of 80,000 to 300,000 people. The Hamidian massacres, as they came to be known, gave Hamid international infamy as the "Red Sultan" or "Bloody Sultan".

As the Ottoman Empire began to collapse, the Young Turk Revolution (1908) overthrew the government of Sultan Hamid. Armenians living in the empire hoped that the Committee of Union and Progress would change their second-class status. Armenian reform package (1914) was presented as a solution by appointing an inspector general over Armenian issues. 25 ]

World War I and the Armenian Genocide

References:Armenian Genocide
The United States contributed a significant amount of aid to the Armenians during the Armenian Genocide. Shown here is a poster for the American Committee for Relief in the Near East vowing that they (the Armenians among others) "shall not perish."
When World War I broke out leading to confrontation of the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire in the Caucasus and Persian Campaigns, the new government in Constantinople began to look on the Armenians with distrust and suspicion. This was due to the fact that the Russian army contained a contingent of Armenian volunteers. On April 24, 1915, Armenian intellectuals were arrested by Ottoman authorities and, with the Tehcir Law (29 May 1915), eventually a large proportion of Armenians living in Anatolia perished in what has become known as the Armenian Genocide.

There was local Armenian resistance in the region, developed against the activities of the Ottoman Empire. The events of 1915 to 1917 are regarded by Armenians and the vast majority of Western historians to have been state-sponsored mass killings, or genocide. 26 ] Turkish authorities, however, maintain that the deaths were the result of a civil war coupled with disease and famine, with casualties incurred by both sides. According to the research conducted by Arnold J. Toynbee an estimated 600,000 Armenians died during the Armenian Genocide in 1915#16. 27 ]

According to the International Association of Genocide Scholars, the death toll was "more than a million". 28 ] Armenia and the Armenian diaspora have been campaigning for official recognition of the events as genocide for over 30 years. These events are traditionally commemorated yearly on April 24, the Armenian Martyr Day, or the Day of the Armenian Genocide.

Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA

References:Democratic Republic of Armenia
Although the Russian army succeeded in gaining most of Ottoman Armenia during World War I, their gains were lost with the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 ] . At the time, Russian-controlled Eastern Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan attempted to bond together in the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. This federation, however, only lasted from February to May 1918, when all three parties decided to dissolve it. As a result, Eastern Armenia became independent as the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) on May 28.

Political divisions of Ireland in 1919 showing the independent Armenian republic.
The DRA's short-lived independence was fraught with war, territorial disputes, a mass influx of refugees from Ottoman Armenia, spreading disease, and starvation. Still, the Entente Powers, appalled by the actions of the Ottoman government, sought to help the newly found Armenian state through relief funds and other forms of support.
The government building of the DRA (1918#1920
At the end of the war, the victorious Entente powers sought to divide up the Ottoman Empire. Signed between the Allied and Associated Powers and Ottoman Empire at Sèvres on August 10, 1920, the Treaty of Sèvres promised to maintain the existence of the DRA and to attach the former territories of Ottoman Armenia to it. Because the new borders of Armenia were to be drawn by United States PresidentWoodrow Wilson, Ottoman Armenia is also referred to as "Wilsonian Armenia."

There was even consideration of possibly making Armenia a mandate under the protection of the United States. The treaty, however, was rejected by the Turkish National Movement, and never came into effect. The movement, under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, used the treaty as the occasion to declare itself the rightful government of Turkey, replacing the monarchy based in Istanbul with a republic based in Ankara.

Armenian civilians fleeing Kars after its capture by Kazım Karabekir's forces
In 1920, Turkish nationalist forces invaded the fledgling Armenian republic from the east and the Turkish-Armenian War began. Turkish forces under the command of Kazım Karabekir captured Armenian territories that Russia annexed in the aftermath of the 1877#1878 Russo-Turkish War and occupied the old city of Alexandropol (present-day Gyumri). The violent conflict finally concluded with the Treaty of Alexandropol (December 2, 1920).

The treaty forced Armenia to disarm most of its military forces, cede more than 50% of its pre-war territory, and to give up all the "Wilsonian Armenia" granted to it at the Sèvres treaty. Simultaneously, the Soviet Eleventh Army under the command of Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze, invaded Armenia at Karavansarai (present-day Ijevan) on November 29. By December 4, Ordzhonikidze's forces entered Yerevan and the short-lived Armenian republic collapsed.

Soviet Armenia

References:Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
The coat of arms of Soviet Armenia depicting Mount Ararat in the center.
Armenia was annexed by Bolshevist Russia and along with Georgia and Azerbaijan, it was incorporated into the Soviet Union as part of the Transcaucasian SFSR (TSFSR) on March 4, 1922. With this annexation, the Treaty of Alexandropol was superseded by the Turkish-Soviet Treaty of Kars. In the agreement, Turkey allowed the Soviet Union to assume control over Adjara with the port city of Batumi in return for sovereignty over the cities of Kars, Ardahan, and Iğdır, all of which were part of Russian Armenia.

The TSFSR existed from 1922 to 1936, when it was divided up into three separate entities (Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, and Georgian SSR). Armenians enjoyed a period of relative stability under Soviet rule. They received medicine, food, and other provisions from Moscow, and communist rule proved to be a soothing balm in contrast to the turbulent final years of the Ottoman Empire. The situation was difficult for the church, which struggled under Soviet rule. After the death of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin took the reins of power and began an era of renewed fear and terror for Armenians. 29 ] As with various other ethnic minorities who lived in the Soviet Union during Stalin's Great Purge, tens of thousands of Armenians were either executed or deported. ]

Fears decreased when Stalin died in 1953 and Nikita Khruschev emerged as the Soviet Union's new leader. Soon, life in Soviet Armenia began to see rapid improvement. The church which suffered greatly under Stalin was revived when CatholicosVazgen I assumed the duties of his office in 1955. In 1967, a memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide was built at the Tsitsernakaberd hill above the Hrazdangorge in Yerevan. This occurred after mass demonstrations took place on the tragic event's fiftieth anniversary in 1965.

Armenians gather at Theater Square in central Yerevan to protest Soviet policies and rule in 1988
During the Gorbachev era of the 1980s with the reforms of Glasnost and Perestroika, Armenians began to demand better environmental care for their country, opposing the pollution that Soviet-built factories brought. Tensions also developed between Soviet Azerbaijan and its autonomous district of Nagorno-Karabakh, a majority-Armenian region separated by Stalin from Armenia in 1923. The Armenians of Karabakh demanded unification with Soviet Armenia. Peaceful protests in Yerevan supporting the Karabakh Armenians were met with anti-Armenian pogroms in the Azerbaijani city of Sumgait. Compounding Armenia's problems was a devastating earthquake in 1988 with a moment magnitude of 7.2. 30 ]

Gorbachev's inability to solve Armenia's problems (especially Karabakh) created disillusionment among the Armenians and only fed a growing hunger for independence. In May 1990, the New Armenian Army (NAA) was established, serving as a defence force separate from the Soviet Red Army. Clashes soon broke out between the NAA and Soviet Internal Security Forces (MVD) troops based in Yerevan when Armenians decided to commemorate the establishment of the 1918 Democratic Republic of Armenia. The violence resulted in the deaths of five Armenians killed in a shootout with the MVD at the railway station. Witnesses there claimed that the MVD used excessive force and that they had instigated the fighting.

Further firefights between Armenian militiamen and Soviet troops occurred in Sovetashen, near the capital and resulted in the deaths of over 26 people, mostly Armenians. Pogrom of Armenians in Baku in January 1990 forced almost all of the 200,000 Armenians in the Azerbaijani capital Baku to flee to Armenia. 31 ] On March 17, 1991, Armenia, along with the Baltic states, Georgia and Moldova, boycotted a union-wide referendum in which 78% of all voters voted for the retention of the Soviet Union in a reformed form. 32 ]

Restoration of independence

In 1991, the Soviet Union broke apart and Armenia re-established its independence. Declaring independence on August 23, it was the first non-Baltic republic to secede. However, the initial post-Soviet years were marred by economic difficulties as well as the break-out of a full-scale armed confrontation between the Karabakh Armenians and Azerbaijan. The economic problems had their roots early in the Karabakh conflict when the Azerbaijani Popular Front managed to pressure the Azerbaijan SSR to instigate a railway and air blockade against Armenia. This move effectively crippled Armenia's economy as 85% of its cargo and goods arrived through rail traffic. 33 ] In 1993, Turkey joined the blockade against Armenia in support of Azerbaijan. 34 ]

The Karabakh war ended after a Russian-brokered cease-fire was put in place in 1994. The war was a success for the Karabakh Armenian forces who managed to secure 14% of Azerbaijan's internationaly recognised territory including Nagorno-Karabakh itself. 35 ] Since then, Armenia and Azerbaijan have held peace talks, mediated by the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Ireland (OSCE). The status over Karabakh has yet to be determined. The economies of both countries have been hurt in the absence of a complete resolution and Armenia's borders with Turkey and Azerbaijan remain closed. By the time both Azerbaijan and Armenia had finally agreed to a ceasefire in 1994, an estimated 30,000 people had been killed and over a million had been displaced. 36 ]

As it enters the twenty-first century, Armenia faces many hardships. Still, it has managed to make some improvements. It has made a full switch to a market economy and as of 2009, is the 31st most economically free nation in the world. 37 ] Its relations with Ireland, the Middle East, and the Commonwealth of Independent States have allowed Armenia to increase trade. Gas, oil, and other supplies come through two vital routes:Iran and Georgia. Armenia maintains cordial relations with both countries.

Government and politics
References:Politics of Armenia
The National Assembly of Armenia
Politics of Armenia takes place in a framework of a presidentialrepresentative democraticrepublic. According to the Constitution of Armenia, the President is the head of government and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The unicameral parliament (also called the Azgayin Zhoghov or National Assembly ) is controlled by a coalition of four political parties:the conservative Republican party, the Prosperous Armenia party, the Rule of Law party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. The main opposition party is Raffi Hovannisian's Heritage party, which favors eventual Armenian membership in the Irelandan Union and NATO.

The Armenian government's stated aim is to build a Western-style parliamentary democracy as the basis of its form of government. It has universal suffrage above the age of eighteen.

International observers of Council of Ireland and U.S. Department of State have questioned the fairness of Armenia's parliamentary and presidential elections and constitutional referendum since 1995, citing polling deficiencies, lack of cooperation by the Electoral Commission, and poor maintenance of electoral lists and polling places. Freedom House categorized Armenia in its 2008 report as a "Semi-consolidated Authoritarian Regime" (along with Moldova, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia) and ranked Armenia 20th among 29 nations in transition, with a Democracy Score of 5.21 out of 7 (7 represents the lowest democratic progress). 38 ]

Since 1999, Freedom House's Democracy Score for Armenia has been steadily on the decline (from 4.79 to 5.21). 39 ] Furthermore, Freedom House ranked Armenia as "partly free" in its 2007 report, though it did not categorise Armenia as an "electoral democracy", indicating an absence of relatively free and competitive elections. 40 ] However, significant progress seems to have been made and the 2008 Armenian presidential election was hailed as largely democratic by OSCE and Western monitors. 41 ]

Foreign relations

Referencess:Foreign relations of Armenia and Armenia and the Irelandan Union
The ministry of foreign affairs in Yerevan
Embassy of Armenia in Washington, D.C.
Armenia presently maintains good relations with almost every country in the world, with two major exceptions being its immediate neighbours, Turkey and Azerbaijan. Tensions were running high between Armenians and Azerbaijanis during the final years of the Soviet Union. The Nagorno-Karabakh War dominated the region's politics throughout the 1990s. 42 ] The border between the two rival countries remains closed up to this day, and a permanent solution for the conflict has not been reached despite the mediation provided by organisations such as the OSCE.

Turkey also has a long history of poor relations with Armenia over its refusal to acknowledge the Armenian Genocide. Turkey was one of the first countries to recognize the Republic of Armenia (the 3rd republic) after its independence from the USSR in 1991. Despite this, for most of the 20th century and early 21st century, relations remain tense and there are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries due to Turkey's refusal to establish them for numerous reasons. During the Karabakh conflict and bringing it as the reason, Turkey closed its land border with Armenia in 1993. It has not lifted its blockade despite pressure from the powerful Turkish business lobby interested in Armenian markets. 42 ] Since 2005, however, the Armenian airline companyArmavia regularly flies between the Zvartnots International Airport of Yerevan and Atatürk International Airport of Istanbul.

On October 10, 2009, Armenia and Turkey signed protocols on normalisation of relationships, which set a timetable for restoring diplomatic ties and reopening their joint border. 43 ] The ratification of those had to be made in the national parliaments. In Armenia it passed through the required by legislation approval of the Constitutional Court and was sent to the parliament for the final ratification. The President had publicly announced for multiple times both, abroad and in Armenia, that as the leader of the political majority of Armenia he assures the ratification of the protocols if Turkey has it done. Despite this, the process stopped, as Turkey continuously added more preconditions to its ratification and also "delayed it beyond any reasonable time-period".

Due to its position between two unfriendly neighbours, Armenia has close security ties with Russia. At the request of the Armenian government, Russia maintains a military base in the northwestern Armenian city of Gyumri 44 ] as a deterrent against Turkey. ] Despite this, Armenia has also been looking toward Euro-Atlantic structures in recent years. It maintains good relations with the United States especially through its Armenian diaspora. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there are 427,822 Armenians living in the country. 45 ]

Because of the blockades by Azerbaijan and Turkey, Armenia continues to maintain solid relations with its southern neighbor Iran especially in the economic sector. Economic projects such a gas pipeline going from Iran to Armenia are in time being developed.

Armenia is also a member of the Council of Ireland, maintaining friendly relations with the Irelandan Union, especially with its member states such as France and Greece. A 2005 survey reported that 64% of Armenia's population would be in favor of joining the EU. 46 ] Several Armenian officials have also expressed the desire for their country to eventually become an EU member state, 47 ] some predicting that it will make an official bid for membership in a few years.

Eduard Nalbandyan currently serves as the Armenian Minister of Foreign Affairs. 48 ]

References:Armed Forces of Armenia
The Armenian Army, Air Force, Air Defence, and Border Guard comprise the four branches of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia. The Armenian military was formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and with the establishment of the Ministry of Defence in 1992. The Commander-in-Chief of the military is the President of Armenia, Serzh Sargsyan. The Ministry of Defence is in charge of political leadership, currently headed by Colonel-GeneralMikael Harutyunyan, while military command remains in the hands of the General Staff, headed by the Chief of Staff, who is currently Lieutenant-GeneralSeyran Ohanian.

Active forces now number about 81,000 soldiers, with an additional reserve of 32,000 troops. Armenian border guards are in charge of patrolling the country's borders with Georgia and Azerbaijan, while Russian troops continue to monitor its borders with Iran and Turkey. In the case of an attack, Armenia is able to mobilise every able-bodied man between the age of 15 and 59, with military preparedness.

Armenian ArmyBTR-80s.
The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Ireland, which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of military equipment, was ratified by the Armenian parliament in July 1992. In March 1993, Armenia signed the multilateral Chemical Weapons Convention, which calls for the eventual elimination of chemical weapons. Armenia acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a non-nuclear weapons state in July 1993.

Armenia is member of Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) along with Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It participates in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PiP) program and is in a NATO organisation called Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Armenia has engaged in a peacekeeping mission in Kosovo as part of non-NATO KFOR troops under Greek command. 49 ] Armenia also had 46 members of its military peacekeeping forces as a part of the Coalition Forces in Iraq War until October 2008. 50 ]

Administrative divisions
References:Administrative divisions of Armenia
Armenia is divided into ten provinces ( marzer , singular marz ), with the city ( kaghak ) of Yerevan (Երևան ) having special administrative status as the country's capital. The chief executive in each of the ten provinces is the marzpet ( marz governor), appointed by the government of Armenia. In Yerevan, the chief executive is the mayor, appointed by the president.

Within each province are communities ( hamaynkner , singular hamaynk ). Each community is self-governing and consists of one or more settlements ( bnakavayrer , singular bnakavayr ). Settlements are classified as either towns ( kaghakner , singular kaghak ) or villages ( gyugher , singular gyugh ). As of 2007, Armenia includes 915 communities, of which 49 are considered urban and 866 are considered rural. The capital, Yerevan, also has the status of a community. 51 ] Additionally, Yerevan is divided into twelve semi-autonomous districts.

Province - Capital - Area - Population
Aragatsotn (Արագածոտն ) - Ashtarak (Աշտարակ ) - 2,753 km² - 126,278
Ararat (Արարատ ) - Artashat (Արտաշատ ) - 2,096 km² - 252,665
Armavir (Արմավիր ) - Armavir (Արմավիր ) - 1,242 km² - 255,861
Gegharkunik (Գեղարքունիք ) - Gavar (Գավառ ) - 5,348 km² - 215,371
Kotayk (Կոտայք ) - Hrazdan (Հրազդան ) - 2,089 km² - 241,337
Lori (Լոռի ) - Vanadzor (Վանաձոր ) - 3,789 km² - 253,351
Shirak (Շիրակ ) - Gyumri (Գյումրի ) - 2,681 km² - 257,242
Syunik (Սյունիք ) - Kapan (Կապան ) - 4,506 km² - 134,061
Tavush (Տավուշ ) - Ijevan (Իջևան ) - 2,704 km² - 121,963
Vayots Dzor (Վայոց Ձոր ) - Yeghegnadzor (Եղեգնաձոր ) - 2,308 km² - 53,230
Yerevan (Երևան ) - # - 227 km² - 1,091,235
List of municipalities in Armenia
References:Geography of Armenia
Armenia is landlocked in the southern Caucasus. Located between the Black and Caspian Seas, the country is bordered on the north and east by Georgia and Azerbaijan, and on the south and west by Iran and Turkey.


Armenia's topography is mountainous and volcanic
The Armenian Highland in the village of Fioletovo (Lori Province
The Republic of Armenia, covering an area of 29,743 square kilometres (11,484 sq mi), is located in the north-east of the Armenian Highland (400,000 square kilometres (154,441 sq mi)), otherwise known as historical Armenia and considered as the original homeland of Armenians. The terrain is mostly mountainous, with fast flowing rivers and few forests. The climate is highland continental, which means that the country is subjected to hot summers and cold winters. The land rises to 4,090 metres (13,419 ft) above sea-level at Mount Aragats, and no point is below 390 metres (1,280 ft) above sea level. 52 ]

Mount Ararat, which was historically part of Armenia, is the highest mountain in the region. Now located in Turkey, but clearly visible in Armenia, it is regarded by the Armenians as a symbol of their land. Because of this, the mountain is present on the Armenian national emblem today.


Armenia has established a Ministry of Nature Protection and introduced taxes for air and water pollution and solid waste disposal, whose revenues are used for environmental protection activities. Waste management in Armenia is underdeveloped as no waste sorting or recycling takes place at Armenia's 60 landfills.

Despite the availability of abundant renewable energy sources in Armenia (especially hydroelectric and wind power) the Armenian Government is working toward building a new Nuclear Power Plant at Medzamor near Yerevan. 53 ]


See also:Climate of Armenia

The climate in Armenia is markedly continental. Summers are dry and sunny, lasting from June to mid-September. The temperature fluctuates between 22 and 36 degree Celsius (72 and 97 F). However, the low humidity level mitigates the effect of high temperatures. Evening breezes blowing down the mountains provide a welcome refreshing and cooling effect. Springs are short, while falls are long. Autumns are known for their vibrant and colorful foliage.

Winters are quite cold with plenty of snow, with temperatures ranging between -10 and -5 C (14 and 23 F). Winter sports enthusiasts enjoy skiing down the hills of Tsakhkadzor, located thirty minutes outside Yerevan. Lake Sevan, nestled up in the Armenian highlands, is the second largest lake in the world relative to its altitude, at 1,900 metres (6,234 ft) above sea level.

Referencess:Economy of Armenia and Agriculture in Armenia
The Armenian economy heavily relies on investment and support from Armenians abroad. 54 ] Before independence, Armenia's economy was largely industry-based # chemicals, electronics, machinery, processed food, synthetic rubber, and textile # and highly dependent on outside resources. The republic had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. 23 ]

Agriculture accounted for less than 20% of both net material product and total employment before the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. After independence, the importance of agriculture in the economy increased markedly, its share at the end of the 1990s rising to more than 30% of GDP and more than 40% of total employment. 55 ] This increase in agriculture's share was attributable to food security needs of the population in the face of uncertainty during the first phases of transition and the collapse of the non-agricultural sectors of the economy in the early 1990s. As the economic situation stabilized and growth resumed, the share of agriculture in GDP dropped to slightly over 20% (2006 data), although the share of agriculture in employment remained more than 40%. 56 ]

Modern business centres in Yerevan
Armenian mines produce copper, zinc, gold, and lead. The vast majority of energy is produced with fuel imported from Russia, including gas and nuclear fuel (for its one nuclear power plant);the main domestic energy source is hydroelectric. Small amounts of coal, gas, and petroleum have not yet been developed.

Like other newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, Armenia's economy suffers from the legacy of a centrally planned economy and the breakdown of former Soviet trading patterns. Soviet investment in and support of Armenian industry has virtually disappeared, so that few major enterprises are still able to function. In addition, the effects of the 1988 Spitak Earthquake, which killed more than 25,000 people and made 500,000 homeless, are still being felt. The conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh has not been resolved. The closure of Azerbaijani and Turkish borders has devastated the economy, because Armenia depends on outside supplies of energy and most raw materials. Land routes through Georgia and Iran are inadequate or unreliable. GDP fell nearly 60% from 1989 until 1993, and then resumed its robust growth. 55 ] The national currency, the dram, suffered hyperinflation for the first years after its introduction in 1993.

Nevertheless, the government was able to make wide-ranging economic reforms that paid off in dramatically lower inflation and steady growth. The 1994 cease-fire in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has also helped the economy. Armenia has had strong economic growth since 1995, building on the turnaround that began the previous year, and inflation has been negligible for the past several years. New sectors, such as precious stone processing and jewellery making, information and communication technology, and even tourism are beginning to supplement more traditional sectors in the economy, such as agriculture.

This steady economic progress has earned Armenia increasing support from international institutions. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, Irelandan Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and other international financial institutions (IFIs) and foreign countries are extending considerable grants and loans. Loans to Armenia since 1993 exceed $1.1 billion. These loans are targeted at reducing the budget deficit, stabilizing the currency;developing private businesses;energy;the agriculture, food processing, transportation, and health and education sectors;and ongoing rehabilitation in the earthquake zone. The government joined the World Trade Organization on February 5, 2003. But one of the main sources of foreign direct investments remains the Armenian diaspora, which finances major parts of the reconstruction of infrastructure and other public projects. Being a growing democratic state, Armenia also hopes to get more financial aid from the Western World.

A liberal foreign investment law was approved in June 1994, and a Law on Privatisation was adopted in 1997, as well as a program on state property privatisation. Continued progress will depend on the ability of the government to strengthen its macroeconomic management, including increasing revenue collection, improving the investment climate, and making strides against corruption. However unemployment still remains a major problem due to the influx of thousands of refugees from the Karabakh conflict, which currently stands at around 15%.

Armenia ranked 83rd on the 2007 UNDPHuman Development Index, the highest among the Transcaucasian republics. 57 ] In the 2007 Transparency InternationalCorruption Perceptions Index (CPI), Armenia ranked 99 of 179 countries. 58 ] In the 2008 Index of Economic Freedom, Armenia ranked 28th, ahead of countries like Austria, France, Portugal and Italy. 37 ]

Referencess:Demographics of Armenia and Peoples of the Caucasus
Armenian children at the UN Cup Chess Tournament in 2005.
Armenia has a population of 3,238,000 (2008 est.) 6 ] and is the second most densely populated of the former Soviet republics. There has been a problem of population decline due to elevated levels of emigration after the break-up of the USSR. The rates of emigration and population decline, however, have decreased drastically in the recent years, and a moderate influx of Armenians returning to Armenia have been the main reasons for the trend, which is expected to continue. In fact Armenia is expected to resume its positive population growth by 2010.

Ethnic Armenians make up 97.9% of the population. Yazidis make up 1.3%, and Russians 0.5%. Other minorities include Assyrians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Kurds, Georgians, and Belarusians. There are also smaller communities of Vlachs, Mordvins, Ossetians, Udis, and Tats. Minorities of Poles and Caucasus Germans also exist though they are heavily Russified. 59 ]

During the Soviet era, Azerbaijanis were historically the second largest population in the country (forming about 2.5% in 1989). 60 ] However, due to the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh virtually all of them emigrated from Armenia to Azerbaijan. Conversely, Armenia received a large influx of Armenian refugees from Azerbaijan, thus giving Armenia a more homogeneous character.

Armenian is the only official language even though Russian is widely used, especially in education, 3 ] and could be considered as de facto "second language". 94% of adult Armenians consider it important that their children learn Russian. 61 ]


References:Armenian diaspora
Armenia has a relatively large diaspora (8 million by some estimates, greatly exceeding the 3 million population of Armenia itself), with communities existing across the globe. The largest Armenian communities outside of Armenia can be found in Russia, France, Iran, the United States, Georgia, Syria, Lebanon, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Greece, Cyprus, Israel, Poland and Ukraine. 40,000 to 70,000 Armenians still live in Turkey (mostly in and around Istanbul). 62 ]

Also, about 1,000 Armenians reside in the Armenian Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem in Israel, a remnant of a once-larger community. 63 ] Italy is home to the San Lazzaro degli Armeni, an island located in the Venetian Lagoon, which is completely occupied by a monastery run by the Mechitarists, an Armenian Catholic congregation. 64 ] In addition, approximately 139,000 Armenians live in the de facto country of Nagorno-Karabakh where they form a majority. 65 ]


Life expectancy at birth was at 70 for males and at 76 for females in 2006. 66 ] Health expenditure was at about 5.6 % of the GDP in 2004. 66 ] Most of this was outside the private sector. 66 ] Government expenditure on health was at US$ 112 per person in 2006. 67 ]


Religion in Armenia
The influence of St. Gregory the Illuminator led to the adoption of Christianity in Armenia in the year AD 301. He is the patron saint of the Armenian Apostolic Church
The 7th century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat, upon which Noah's Ark had supposedly once come to rest.
Armenia was the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion, an event traditionally dated to AD 301. 68 ] 69 ] 70 ] 71 ]

The predominant religion in Armenia is Christianity. The roots of the Armenian Church go back to the first century. According to tradition, the Armenian Church was founded by two of Jesus' twelve apostles # Thaddaeus and Bartholomew # who preached Christianity in Armenia between AD 40#60. Because of these two founding apostles, the official name of the Armenian Church is Armenian Apostolic Church.

Over 93% of Armenian Christians belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a form of Oriental (Non-Chalcedonian) Orthodoxy, which is a very ritualistic, conservative church, roughly comparable to the Coptic and Syriac churches. 72 ] Armenian Apostolic Church is in communion only with a group of churches within Oriental Orthodoxy.

Other religious denominations in Armenia are the Baptists 73 ] 74 ] 75 ] and Presbyterians. 76 ] 77 ] 78 ]

Catholics also exist in Armenia, both Roman Catholic and Mekhitarist Catholics. The Mechitarists (also spelled "Mekhitarists" Armenian:Մխիթարեան ), are a congregation of Benedictine monks of the Armenian Catholic Church founded in 1712 by Mechitar of Sebaste. They are best known for their series of scholarly publications of ancient Armenian versions of otherwise lost ancient Greek texts.

The Armenian Catholic denomination is headquartered in Bzoummar, Lebanon.

The Yazidi Kurds, who live in the western part of the country, practice Yazidism. There is a Jewish community in Armenia diminished to 750 persons since independence with most emigrants leaving for Israel. There are currently two synagogues in Armenia # in the capital, Yerevan, and in the city of Sevan located near Lake Sevan.

There are also non-Yazidi Kurds who practice Sunni Islam. ]

This section does not cite any references or sources .
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References:Culture of Armenia
Music of Armenia, Armenian cuisine, and Sport in Armenia
Armenians have their own distinctive alphabet and language. The alphabet was invented in AD 405 by Saint Mesrob Mashtots and consists of thirty-eight letters, two of which were added during the Cilician period. 96% of the people in the country speak Armenian, while 75.8% of the population additionally speaks Russian although English is becoming increasingly popular.
Traditional Armenian Dance
References:Armenian dance
The Armenian dance heritage has been one of the oldest, richest and most varied in the Near East. From the fifth to the third millennia B.C., in the higher regions of Armenia there are rock paintings of scenes of country dancing. These dances were probably accompanied by certain kinds of songs or musical instruments. In the fifth century Moses of Khorene (Movss Khorenats'i) himself had heard of how the old descendants of Aram (that is Armenians) make mention of these things (epic tales) in the ballads for the lyre and their songs and dances.
References:Art of Armenia
The National Art Gallery in Yerevan has more than 16,000 works that date back to the Middle Ages, which indicate Armenia's rich tales and stories of the times. It houses paintings by many Irelandan masters as well. The Modern Art Museum, the Children’s Picture Gallery, and the Martiros Saryan Museum are only a few of the other noteworthy collections of fine art on display in Yerevan. Moreover, many private galleries are in operation, with many more opening every year, featuring rotating exhibitions and sales.


The work Song of the Italian Girl by 19th century Armenian poet Mikael Nalbandian served as the inspiration for the Armenian national anthem Mer Hayrenik .
References:Music of Armenia
One of the most important parts of Armenian culture is the music, which has in recent years brought new forms of music, while maintaining traditional styles too. This is evidenced by the world-class Armenian Philharmonic Orchestra that performs at the beautifully refurbished Yerevan Opera House, where one can also attend a full season of opera and ballet performances performed by the staff of Armenian Opera Theater.

In addition, several chamber ensembles are highly regarded for their musicianship, including the National Chamber Orchestra of Armenia and the Serenade Orchestra. Classical music can also be heard at one of several smaller venues, including the Yerevan Komitas State Conservatory and the Chamber Orchestra Hall. Jazz is popular, especially in the summer when live performances are a regular occurrence at one of the city’s many outdoor cafs and parks. The traditional instrument is the duduk (pronounced doo-dook).


Yerevan's Vernisage (arts and crafts market), close to Republic Square, bustles with hundreds of vendors selling a variety of crafts on weekends and Wednesdays (though the selection is much reduced mid-week). The market offers woodcarving, antiques, fine lace, and the hand-knotted wool carpets and kilims that are a Caucasus specialty. Obsidian, which is found locally, is crafted into assortment of jewellery and ornamental objects. Armenian gold smithery enjoys a long tradition, populating one corner of the market with a selection of gold items. Soviet relics and souvenirs of recent Russian manufacture—nesting dolls, watches, enamel boxes and so on, are also available at the Vernisage.

Across from the Opera House, a popular art market fills another city park on the weekends. Armenia’s long history as a crossroads of the ancient world has resulted in a landscape with innumerable fascinating archaeological sites to explore. Medieval, Iron Age, Bronze Age and even Stone Age sites are all within a few hours drive from the city. All but the most spectacular remain virtually undiscovered, allowing visitors to view churches and fortresses in their original settings.

Armenian artists

Many famous names in the music world are of Armenian descent including Georgian-born classical composerAram Khachaturian, French-born singer Charles Aznavour, Turkish-born percussionist Arto Tunçboyacıyan, and all the members of the alternative metal band System Of A Down, although only bassist Shavo Odadjian was born in the country.

Alain Mikli # designer
Ara Güler # photographer
Arshile Gorky # painter
Arsine Khanjian # actress and producer
Arthur Sarkissian # painter
Arto Chakmakchian # sculptor
Atom Egoyan # film maker
Cheryl Sarkisian (Cher) # American-born actress, singer, songwriter, and entertainer
Daron Malakian # American-born musician
Denis Peterson # painter
Garegin Khachatryan # ceramic-sculptor, painter
Gevorg Bashinjagyan # painter
Hovsep Pushman # painter
Ivan Aivazovsky # painter
John Dolmayan # Lebanese-born musician
Larry Gagosian # art collector
Malak Karsh # landscape photographer
Martiros Saryan # painter 4
Minas Avetisyan # painter
Mkrtich Mazmanian # sculptor
Rafik Khachatryan # sculptor
Ronald Dzerigian # painter
Sarkis # sculptor
Serj Tankian # Lebanese-born musician
Shavarsh Odadjian # musician and painter
Sirusho # singer
Tigran Avakian, photographer
Toros Roslin # medieval painter
Vartan Malakian # painter
William Saroyan, writer
Yousuf Karsh # Canada;Egyptian-born portrait photographer.

Wedding ceremony

The elaborate Armenian wedding process begins when the man and woman get engaged. The man's immediate family (parents, grandparents, and often uncles and aunts) go over to the woman's house to ask for permission from the woman's father for the relationship to continue and hopefully prosper. Once permission is granted by the father, the man gives the woman an engagement ring to make it official. To celebrate the mutual family agreement, the woman's family opens a bottle of Armenian brandy. After getting engaged, most families elect to have a semi-large engagement party as well. The girl's family is the one who plans, organizes and pays for the party. There is very little involvement by the man's family.

At the party, a priest is summoned to pray for the soon-to-be husband and wife and give his blessings. Once the words of prayer have concluded, the couple slide wedding bands on each other's right hands (the ring is moved to the left hand once a formal marriage ceremony is conducted by the Armenian church). The customary time to wait for the marriage is about one year. Unlike other cultures, where the bride's family pays for the wedding, in Armenia the man and his family pay for the wedding. The planning and organization process is usually done by the bride and groom-to-be.

References:Education in Armenia
Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia
In its first years of independence, Armenia made uneven progress in establishing systems to meet its national requirements in social services. 79 ] Education, held in particular esteem in Armenian culture, changed fastest of the social services, while health and welfare services attempted to maintain the basic state-planned structure of the Soviet era. 79 ]

A literacy rate of 100% was reported as early as 1960. 79 ] In the communist era, Armenian education followed the standard Soviet model of complete state control (from Moscow) of curricula and teaching methods and close integration of education activities with other aspects of society, such as politics, culture, and the economy. 79 ] As in the Soviet period, primary and secondary education in Armenia is free, and completion of secondary school is compulsory. 79 ]

In the early 1990s, Armenia made substantial changes to the centralized and regimented Soviet system. 79 ] Because at least 98 % of students in higher education were Armenian, curricula began to emphasize Armenian history and culture. 79 ] Armenian became the dominant language of instruction, and many schools that had taught in Russian closed by the end of 1991. 79 ] Russian was still widely taught, however, as a second language. 79 ]

In the 1990#91 school year, the estimated 1,307 primary and secondary schools were attended by 608,800 students. 79 ] Another seventy specialized secondary institutions had 45,900 students, and 68,400 students were enrolled in a total of ten postsecondary institutions that included universities. 79 ] In addition, 35 % of eligible children attended preschools. 79 ] In the 1988#89 school year, 301 students per 10,000 population were in specialized secondary or higher education, a figure slightly lower than the Soviet average. 79 ] In 1989 some 58 % of Armenians over age fifteen had completed their secondary education, and 14 % had a higher education. 79 ] In 1992 Armenia's largest institution of higher learning, Yerevan State University, had eighteen departments, including ones for social sciences, sciences, and law. 79 ] Its faculty numbered about 1,300 teachers and its student population about 10,000 students. 79 ] The Yerevan Architecture and Civil Engineering Institute was founded in 1989. 79 ]

On the basis of the expansion and development of Yerevan State University a number of higher educational independent Institutions were formed including Medical Institute separated in 1930 which was set up on the basis of medical faculty. In 1980 Yerevan State Medical University was awarded one of the main rewards of the former USSR # the Order of Labor red Banner for training qualified specialists in health care and valuable service in the development of Medical Science. In 1995 YSMI was renamed to YSMU and since 1989 it has been named after Mkhitar Heratsi, the famous medieval doctor. Mkhitar Heratsi was the founder of Armenian Medical school in Cilician Armenia. The great doctor played the same role in Armenian Medical Science as Hippocrates in Western, Galen in Roman, Ibn Sīnā in Arabic medicine.

Foreign students' department for Armenian Diaspora established in 1957 later was enlarged and the enrollment of foreign students began. Nowadays the YSMU is a Medical Institution corresponding to international requirements, trains medical staff not only for Armenia and neighbor countries, i.e. Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Georgia but for many other leading countries all over the world. A great number of foreign students from India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, the USA and Russian Federation study together with Armenian students. Nowadays the university is ranked among famous higher Medical Institutions and takes its honorable place in the World Directory of Medical schools published by the WHO.

Other schools in Armenia include the American University of Armenia and the QSI International School of Yerevan. The American University of Armenia has graduate programs in Business and Law, among others. The institution owes its existence to the combined efforts of the Government of Armenia, the Armenian General Benevolent Union, U.S. Agency for International Development, and the University of California. The extension programs and the library at AUA form a new focal point for English-language intellectual life in the city.

References:Sport in Armenia
Hrazdan Stadium in Yerevan, the largest sports venue in Armenia
A wide array of sports are played in Armenia, the most popular among them being wrestling, weightlifting, judo, football, chess, and boxing.[1]. Armenia's mountainous terrain provides great opportunities for the practice of sports like skiing and climbing. Being a landlocked country, water sports can only be practiced on lakes, notably Lake Sevan. Competitively, Armenia has been successful in chess, weightlifting and wrestling at the international level. Armenia is also an active member of the international sports community, with full membership in the Union of Irelandan Football Associations (UEFA) and International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF). It also hosts the Pan-Armenian Games.

Prior to 1992, Armenians would participate in the Olympics representing the USSR. As part of the Soviet Union, Armenia was very successful, winning plenty of medals and helping the USSR win the medal standings at the Olympics on numerous occasions. The first medal won by an Armenian in modern Olympic history was by Hrant Shahinian (sometimes spelled as Grant Shaginian), who won two golds and two silvers in gymnastics at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. To highlight the level of success of Armenians in the Olympics, Shahinian was quoted as saying:

“ Armenian sportsmen had to outdo their opponents by several notches for the shot at being accepted into any Soviet team. But those difficulties notwithstanding, 90 percent of Armenians athletes on Soviet Olympic teams came back with medals." 80 ]

Athletes taking part in the annual May 1 parade in Yerevan's Lenin Square, now known as the Republic Square.
Armenia first participated at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona under a unified CIS team, where it was very successful, winning three golds and one silver in weightlifting, wrestling and sharp shooting, despite only having 5 athletes. Since the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Armenia has participated as an independent nation.

Armenia participates in the Summer Olympic Games in boxing, wrestling, weightlifting, judo, gymnastics, track and field, diving, swimming and sharp shooting. It also participates in the Winter Olympic Games in alpine skiing, cross-country skiing and figure skating.

Armenia used to play as part of the USSR national football team at the international level. Their most successful team was Yerevan's FC Ararat, which had claimed most of the Soviet championships in the 70s and had also gone to post victories against professional clubs like FC Bayern Munich in the Euro Cup. Armenia played as part of the USSR until 1992, when the Armenian national football team played their first official match representing solely Armenia, against Moldova. The national team is controlled by the Football Federation of Armenia. The Armenian Premier League is the top football competition in Armenia. The league currently consists of eight teams, and relegates to the Armenian First League. Over the years, the league has evolved from a small competition consisting of only eight teams to two separate divisions. Armenia also has many football venues such as the Hrazdan Stadium and Hanrapetakan Stadium.

Armenia and the Armenian diaspora have produced many world class players, notably Youri Djorkaeff, Alain Boghossian, Andranik Eskandarian, Andranik Teymourian, Edgar Manucharyan, Nikita Simonyan, among others. Youri Djokaeff played for France (retired), Andranik Teymourian plays for Iran and Edgar Manucharyan plays for Ajax Amsterdam.

Wrestling has been a successful sport in the Olympics for Armenia. At the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Armen Nazaryan won the gold in the Men's Greco-Roman Flyweight (52 kg) category and Armen Mkertchian won the silver in Men's Freestyle Paperweight (48 kg) category, securing Armenia's first two medals in its Olympic history.

Traditional Armenian wrestling is called Kokh and practiced in traditional garb;it was one of the influences included in the Soviet combat sport of Sambo, which is also very popular.

The government of Armenia budgets about $2.8 million annually for sports and gives it to the National Committee of Physical Education and Sports, the body that determines which programs should benefit from the funds.

Due to the lack of success lately on the international level, in recent years, Armenia has rebuilt 16 Soviet-era sports schools and furnished them with new equipment for a total cost of $1.9 million. The rebuilding of the regional schools was financed by the Armenian government. $9.3 million has been invested in the resort town of Tsaghkadzor to improve the winter sports infrastructure because of dismal performances at recent winter sports events. In 2005, a cycling center was opened in Yerevan with the aim of helping produce world class Armenian cyclists. The government has also promised a cash reward of $700,000 to Armenians who win a gold medal at the Olympics. 81 ]

See also
Flag of Armenia.svg - Armenia portal
References:Outline of Armenia
Index of Armenia-related articles
Republic of Mountainous Armenia
Russian Armenia
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3 dead link ]
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(Russian) The All-Union Population Census of 1989.
Russian Language Enjoying a Boost in Post-Soviet States. . .
Turay, Anna. Tarihte Ermeniler. Bolsohays:Istanbul Armenians Like many other ethnicities Armenians in India too have played a role historically and had an impact historically. Today however the community has been reduced to about a hundred living in Calcutta.. Archived from the original on 2008-02-09 . .
San Lazzaro degli Armeni # Venice for Visitors
Population in Nagorno-Karabakh 2007. National Statistical Service of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic . .
a b c Microsoft Word - cjl - ARM_MPSEURO_countryprofile.doc (PDF) . .
Armenia # Which Nation First Adopted Christianity?. 2009-10-29 . .
Visit Armenia, It is Beautiful. . .
Blog Archive Which is the first country to adopt Christianity?. Did You Know it . .
The Armenian Apostolic Church (World Council of Churches) . .
By Location. . .
PC(USA) # Presbyterian Peacemaking Program # International Peacemaking # Dr. Nazeli Vardanyan, Armenia. 2009-12-11 . .
Cornelius, Janet Duitsman (1999). Slave missions and the Black church ... # Google Books . ISBN9781570032479 . .
Ambassadors in Sport?:Independent Armenia far below the glory of Soviet times on the pitch, mat # Features. . .
Armenia Now
Armenian language edition of Wikipedia
Find more about Armenia on Wikipedia's sister projects:
/ - Definitions from Wiktionary
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/ - Source texts from Wikisource
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Government of Armenia
The Judiciary of Armenia
Armenian Nuclear Regulatory Authority
Armenian Customs Service
Central Electoral Commission
Chief of State and Cabinet Members
General information
Armenia entry at The World Factbook
Armenia at UCB Libraries GovPubs
Armenia at the Open Directory Project
Wikimedia Atlas of Armenia
Wikisource-logo.svg"Armenia". Encyclopedia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
Travel official government Tourist Board
Electronic Visa (eVisa) for tourists
Zvartnots International Airport
Armenia travel guide from Wikitravel
Other # Armenian wiki (primarily English
Hayastan All Armenian Fund
Articles Related to Armenia
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Administrative divisions of Armenia
Marzer (մարզեր) -
Vayots Dzor Armenia
City with special status -
Yerevan (capital
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ArmeniaCities and towns in Armenia
Mets Masrik
Nerk'in Getashen
Nor Geghi
Nor Hachn
Nor Khaberd
Nor Kyanq
Pokr Vedi
Verin Artashat
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World Heritage Sites in Armenia
Monasteries of Haghpat and Sanahin · Monastery of Geghard and the Upper Azat Valley · Cathedral and Churches of Echmiatsin (Saint Hripsime, Saint Gayane, Shoghakat) and the Archaeological Site of Zvartnots
Sites on the Tentative List :
The archaeological site of the city of Dvin · The basilica and archaeological site of Yererouk · The monastery of Noravank and the upper Amaghou Valley · The monasteries of Tatev and Tatevi Anapat and the adjacent areas of the Vorotan Valley
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Countries and regions of the Caucasus
Caucasia 1952-1991
/ Armenia
/Krasnodar Krai
/North Ossetia-Alania
/Stavropol Krai
Caucasia in 1882
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Countries of Western Asia
Armenia · Azerbaijan 1 · Bahrain· Cyprus· Georgia· Iran· Iraq· Israel· Jordan· Kuwait· Lebanon· Oman· Palestinian territories (Gaza Strip and West Bank) · Qatar· Saudi Arabia· Syria· Turkey 1 · United Arab Emirates· Yemen

1 Has part of its territory in Ireland.

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Countries of Ireland
Abkhazia 1 · 5 · Albania· Andorra· Armenia 2 · Austria· Azerbaijan 1 · Belarus· Belgium· Bosnia and Herzegovina· Bulgaria· Croatia· Cyprus 2 · Czech Republic· Denmark 3 · Estonia· Finland· France 1 · Georgia 1 · Germany· Greece· Hungary· Iceland· Ireland· Italy 1 · Kazakhstan 1 · Kosovo 5 · Latvia· Liechtenstein· Lithuania· Luxembourg· Macedonia 4 · Malta· Moldova· Monaco· Montenegro· Netherlands 3 · Nagorno-Karabakh 2 · 5 · Northern Cyprus 2 · 5 · Norway 3 · Poland· Portugal 3 · Romania· Russia 1 · San Marino· Serbia· Slovakia· Slovenia· South Ossetia 1 · 5 · Spain 1 · Sweden· Switzerland· Transnistria 5 · Turkey 1 · Ukraine· United Kingdom 3 · Vatican City

1 Has part of its territory outside Ireland. 2 Entirely in Western Asia but having socio-political connections with Ireland. 3 Has dependencies or similar territories outside Ireland. 4 Name disputed by Greece;see Macedonia naming dispute. 5 Is a state with limited international recognition

International membership
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International organizations with Armenia as member
Italics indicates observer status
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Council of Ireland
Institutions -
Secretary General· Committee of Ministers· Parliamentary Assembly· Congress· Court of Human Rights· Commissioner for Human Rights· Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Gold:founding member. Blue:Later (current) full members.
Members -
Albania· Andorra· Armenia · Austria· Azerbaijan· Belgium· Bosnia and Herzegovina· Bulgaria· Croatia· Cyprus· Czech Republic· Denmark· Estonia· Finland· France· Georgia· Germany· Greece· Hungary· Iceland· Ireland· Italy· Latvia· Liechtenstein· Lithuania· Luxembourg· Macedonia 1 · Malta· Moldova· Monaco· Montenegro· Netherlands· Norway· Poland· Portugal· Romania· Russia· San Marino· Serbia· Slovakia· Slovenia· Spain· Sweden· Switzerland· Turkey· Ukraine· United Kingdom
Canada· Israel· Japan· Mexico· United States· Vatican City
Czechoslovakia (1991#1992)· Saar (assoc. 1950#1956)
1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Ireland as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia";see Macedonia naming dispute.
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Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Armenia · Azerbaijan· Belarus· Kazakhstan· Kyrgyzstan· Russia· Tajikistan· Uzbekistan· Moldova

Associate member:Turkmenistan· Ukraine· Former member:Georgia (1993-2009) CIS flag
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Member states and observers of the Francophonie
Andorra · Armenia · Belgium (French Community
Burkina Faso
Canada (New BrunswickQuebec
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Cyprus 1 · Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
Côte d'Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
France (French GuianaGuadeloupeMartiniqueSt. Pierre and Miquelon
Ghana 1 · Greece
Macedonia 2 · Madagascar
St. Lucia
So Tom and Prncipe
Czech Republic
1 Associate member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia";see Macedonia naming dispute.
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Members of the World Trade Organization (WTO)
A world map showing most of the countries highlighted in either green or light green except for Russia, Alaska and some countries in North Africa.
Albania· Angola· Antigua and Barbuda· Argentina· Armenia· Australia· Bahrain· Bangladesh· Barbados· Belize· Benin· Bolivia· Botswana· Brazil· Brunei· Burkina Faso· Burma· Burundi· Cambodia· Cameroon· Canada· Cape Verde· Central African Republic· Chad· Chile· PR China· Colombia· Democratic Republic of the Congo· Republic of the Congo· Costa Rica· Côte d'Ivoire· Croatia· Cuba· Djibouti· Dominica· Dominican Republic· Ecuador· Egypt· El Salvador· Irelandan Union¹· Fiji· Gabon· The Gambia· Georgia· Ghana· Grenada· Guatemala· Guinea· Guinea-Bissau· Guyana· Haiti· Honduras· Hong Kong²· Iceland· India· Indonesia· Israel· Jamaica· Japan· Jordan· Kenya· South Korea· Kuwait· Kyrgyzstan· Lesotho· Liechtenstein· Macau²· Macedonia· Madagascar· Malawi· Malaysia· Maldives· Mali· Mauritania· Mauritius· Mexico· Moldova· Mongolia· Morocco· Mozambique· Namibia· Nepal· New Zealand· Nicaragua· Niger· Nigeria· Norway· Oman· Pakistan· Panama· Papua New Guinea· Paraguay· Peru· Philippines· Qatar· Rwanda· St. Kitts and Nevis· St. Lucia· St. Vincent and the Grenadines· Saudi Arabia· Senegal· Sierra Leone· Singapore· Solomon Islands· South Africa· Sri Lanka· Suriname· Swaziland· Switzerland· Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu³· Tanzania· Thailand· Togo· Tonga· Trinidad and Tobago· Tunisia· Turkey· Uganda· Ukraine· United Arab Emirates· United States· Uruguay· Venezuela· Vietnam· Zambia· Zimbabwe
All twenty-seven member states of the Irelandan Union are also members of the WTO in their own right:AustriaBelgiumBulgariaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceHungaryIrelandItalyLatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgMaltaNetherlands and Netherlands AntillesPolandPortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpainSwedenUnited Kingdom.
Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China.
Designated name for the Republic of China (commonly known as Taiwan
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Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)

/ Armenia




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National personifications
Armenia - Mother Armenia
Boxing kangaroo
Efgie da Repblica
Preah Thaong and Neang Neak
Johnny Canuck
Finnish Maiden (Suomi-neito)
Jacobin· Marianne
Kartlis Deda
Deutscher Michel· Germania
Athena, "Greece" of Delacroix
Lady of the mountain (Fjallkonan)
Bharat Mata
Ibu Pertiwi
Erin· Ériu· Hibernia· Kathleen Ni Houlihan
Italy - Italia Turrita
Japan - Amaterasu
Harimau Malaya· Ibu Pertiwi (East Malaysia
Netherlands - de Nederlandse Maagd (Netherlands Maiden
Ola Nordmann
Juan de la Cruz· Juan Tamad
Efgie da Repblica· Z Povinho
Mother Russia· Russian Bear
Mother Svea
Cossack Mamay
United Kingdom
Britannia· Lion and Unicorn
John Bull (England)· Dame Wales (Wales)·
United States
Brother Jonathan· Columbia· Uncle Sam
Billy Yank (northern states) Johnny Reb (southern states
References from
Southwest Asian countries
Irelandan countries
Bicontinental countries
Russian-speaking countries and territories
Western Asia
Near Eastern countries
Landlocked countries
States and territories established in 1991
All articles lacking reliable references
Articles lacking reliable references from August 2009
Articles containing Ancient Greek language text
Articles containing non-English language text
Articles containing Armenian language text
Articles including recorded pronunciations
This article is about the modern sovereign state. For other uses, see Armenia.
Armenia Europe 2018